Jaron Lanier Zepel ( / dʒ eɪ r ᵻ n the ᵻ n ɪər / , born May 3, 1960) is an American computer philosophy writer, computer scientist, visual artist, and composer of classical music. A pioneer in the field of virtual reality , [2] Lanier and Thomas G. Zimmerman left Atari in 1985 to found VPL Research , Inc., the first company to sell VR goggles and gloves . In the late 1990s, Lanier worked on applications for Internet2 , and in the 2000s, He was a visiting scholar at Silicon Graphics and various universities. From 2006 to the end of 2008, Microsoft Research as Interdisciplinary Scientist. [3]

Lanier has composed classical music and is a collector of rare instruments; His acoustic album, Instruments of Change (1994) features Asian wind and string instruments such as the khene mouth organ, the suling flute, and the sitar -like esraj . Lanier teamed with Mario Grigorov to compose the soundtrack to the documentary film, The Third Wave (2007). In 2010, Lanier was nominated in the TIME 100 list of most influential people. [4]

Early life and education (1960-1982)

Born Jaron Zepel Lanier [5] in New York City, Lanier was raised in Mesilla, New Mexico . [6] [7] Lanier’s mother and father were Jewish; His mother was a concentration camp survivor from Vienna and his father’s family had emigrated from Ukraine to escape the pogroms . [8] When he was nine years old, his mother was killed in a car accident. He livesd in tents for an extended period with his father before embarking on a seven-year project to build a geodesic dome home that he helped design. [9] [10] At the age of 13, Lanier convinced New Mexico State University to let him enroll. At NMSU, he took graduate-level courses; He received a grant from the National Science Foundation to study mathematical notation, which led him to learn computer programming. [11] From 1979 to 1980, the NSF-funded project at NMSU focused on “digital graphical simulations for learning”. Lanier also attended art school in New York during this time, but returned to New Mexico and worked as a midwife. The father of a baby he helped deliver him a car as a gift; Lanier drove the car to Santa Cruz. [12] The NSF-funded project at NMSU focused on “digital graphical simulations for learning”. Lanier also attended art school in New York during this time, but returned to New Mexico and worked as a midwife. The father of a baby he helped deliver him a car as a gift; Lanier drove the car to Santa Cruz. [12] The NSF-funded project at NMSU focused on “digital graphical simulations for learning”. Lanier also attended art school in New York during this time, but returned to New Mexico and worked as a midwife. The father of a baby he helped deliver him a car as a gift; Lanier drove the car to Santa Cruz. [12]

Atari Labs, VPL Research (1983-1990)

In California, Lanier worked for Atari , where he met Thomas Zimmerman, inventor of the glove . After Atari Inc. was split into two companies in 1984, Lanier was unemployed. VPL, a “post-symbolic” visual programming language . Along with Zimmerman, Lanier founded VPL Research , focusing on commercializing virtual reality technologies; The company prospered for a while, filed for bankruptcy in 1990. [7] In 1999, Sun Microsystemsbought VPL’s virtual reality and related graphics-related patents. [13]

Internet2, visiting scholar (1997-2001)

From 1997 to 2001, Lanier was the Chief Scientist of Advanced Network and Services , which included the Engineering Office of Internet2 , and served as the Lead Scientist of the National Tele-Immersion Initiative. . The initiative demonstrates the first prototypes of tele-immersion in 2000 after a three-year development period. From 2001 to 2004, he was Visiting Scientist at Silicon Graphics Inc., where he developed solutions to core problems in telepresence and tele-immersion. He was also visiting scholar with the Department of Computer Science at Columbia University (1997-2001), a visiting artist with New York University ‘s Interactive Telecommunications Program , and a founding member of the International Institute for Evolution and the Brain. [14]

Philosophy, criticism of Web 2.0

“One-Half of a Manifesto” (2000)

In “One-Half a Manifesto”, Lanier criticizes the claims made by writers such as Ray Kurzweil , and opposes the prospect of so-called “cybernetic totalism”, which is a cataclysm brought on when computers become ultra-intelligent masters of matter And life. ” [15] [16] Lanier’s position is that humans may not be considered to be biological computers, ie, they may not be compared to digital computers in any proper sense, and it is very unlikely that they could be replaced by computers A few decades, even economically. While transistor counts according to Moore’s law , overall performance rises only very slowly. According to Lanier, This is because human productivity in developing software. “Simply put, software just will not allow it.” [17] At the end of this booklet, we present the results of the study. The impression of objective necessity paralyzes the ability of humans to walk out of or to fight the paradigm and causes the self-fulfilling destiny which spoils people.

Post-symbolic communication (2006)

Some of Lanier’s speculation involves what he calls “post-symbolic communication.” In his April 2006 Discover magazine column, he writes about cephalopods (ie, the various species of octopus , squid , and related molluscs ), many of which are able to morph their bodies, including changing the pigmentation and texture of their skin As forming complex imitations with their limbs. Lanier sees this behavior, especially as exchanged between two octopodes, as a direct behavioral expression of thought. [18]

Wikipedia and the omniscience of collective wisdom

In His online essay ” Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism “, in Edge magazine in May 2006, Lanier Criticized the sometimes Are Claimed omniscience of collective wisdom (Including examples Such As the Wikipedia Article about himself, qui he Said recurrently exaggerates His film directing work), describing it as “digital Maoism “. [19] He writes “If we start to believe that the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we’re devaluing those people [creating the content] and making ourselves into idiots.” [19]

His criticism aims at several targets which concern him and are at different levels of abstraction:

  • Any attempt to create one final authoritative bottleneck which channels the knowledge on society is wrong, regardless whether it is a Wikipedia or any algorithmically created producing meta information,
  • It creates a false sense of authority behind the information,
  • Sterile style of wiki writing is undesirable because:
    • It ‘s removes the touch with the real author of original information, it filters the subtlety of its opinions, essential information (for example, the graphical context of original sources) is lost,
  • Collective organizational beliefs,
  • He worries that collectively created works may be manipulated behind the scenes by anonymous groups of editors who bear no visible responsibility,
    • And that this kind of activity might create future totalitarian systems as these are basically grounded on misbehaved collectives which oppress individuals.

This criticism is further Top Explored in an interview with one _him_ Radio National ‘s The Philosopher’s Zone , Where he is critical of the denatured effect which “Removes the scent of people”. [20]

In December 2006 Lanier went on to write his first review of the collective wisdom with an article in Edge titled “Beware the Online Collective”. [21] Lanier writes:

I wonder if some aspect of human nature evolved in the context of competing packs. We could be genetically wired to be vulnerable to the lure of the mob …. What’s in the anonymous mass of anonymous but connected people from suddenly turning into a mob, just like masses of people have time and time again in the history Of every human culture? It ‘s amazing how in the design of online software can bring out such varied potentials in human behavior. It’s time to think about that power on a moral basis.

Lanier argues that the search for deeper information in any area would require that a person be able to make a decision. Its full meaning. ” [21] That is, he sees limitations in the utility of an encyclopedia produced by only partially interested third parties as a form of communication.

You Are Not a Gadget (2010)

In his book You Are Not a Gadget (2010), Lanier criticizes what he perceives as the hive mind of Web 2.0 ( wisdom of the crowd ) and describes the open source and open content expropriation of intellectual production as a form of “Digital Maoism” . [22] Lanier argues that Web 2.0 developments have delayed progress and innovation and glorified the collective at the expense of the individual. He criticizes Wikipedia and Linux as examples of this problem; Wikipedia for his “mob rule” by anonymous editors, the weakness of its non-scientific content, and its bullying of experts . Lanier also argues that there are limitations to certain aspects of the open source and content movement in which they lack the ability to create anything new and innovative. For example, Lanier argues that the open source did not create the iPhone. In another example, Lanier claims that Web 2.0 makes search engines lazy, destroys the potential of innovative websites like Thinkquest , and hampers the communication of ideas like mathematics to a wider audience. Lanier further argues that “the lords of the clouds” -people who, by virtue of luck of the clouds True innovation, Manage to insert themselves as well as concentrate at strategic times and locations in the cloud. In the book, Lanier criticizes the MIDI Standard for musical instrument commonality. Lanier published his comments as a bait for debate.

Who Owns the Future (2013)

In his book Who Owns the Future? (2013), Lanier posits that the middle class is increasingly disenfranchised from online economies. By convincing users to give away valuable information about themselves in exchange for free services, companies can increase large amounts of data at virtually no cost. Lanier calls these firms “Siren Servers,” alluding to the Sirens of Ulysses. Instead of paying for each individual contribution to the data pool, the Siren Servers concentrate wealth in the hands of the few who control the data centers. For example, he points to Google’s translation algorithm, which amalgamates previous translations uploaded by people online, giving the user his best guess. The people behind the source translations receive no payment for their work, While Google profits from increased ad visibility as a powerful Siren Server. In another example, Lanier points out that in 1988, Kodak employed 140,000 people when it led the digital imaging industry. By 2012, Kodak had filed for bankruptcy due to free photo-sharing sites such as Instagram which employed only 13 people at the time. [23] As a solution to these problems, Lanier puts forth an alternative structure to the web based on Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu . He proposed a two-way linking system that would be a source of information, creating an economy of micropayments that compensate people for original material they post to the web. 000 people when it led the digital imaging industry. By 2012, Kodak had filed for bankruptcy due to free photo-sharing sites such as Instagram which employed only 13 people at the time. [23] As a solution to these problems, Lanier puts forth an alternative structure to the web based on Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu . He proposed a two-way linking system that would be a source of information, creating an economy of micropayments that compensate people for original material they post to the web. 000 people when it led the digital imaging industry. By 2012, Kodak had filed for bankruptcy due to free photo-sharing sites such as Instagram which employed only 13 people at the time. [23] As a solution to these problems, Lanier puts forth an alternative structure to the web based on Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu . He proposed a two-way linking system that would be a source of information, creating an economy of micropayments that compensate people for original material they post to the web. Lanier puts forth an alternative structure to the web based on Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu . He proposed a two-way linking system that would be a source of information, creating an economy of micropayments that compensate people for original material they post to the web. Lanier puts forth an alternative structure to the web based on Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu . He proposed a two-way linking system that would be a source of information, creating an economy of micropayments that compensate people for original material they post to the web.

Music

As a musician, Lanier has been active in the world of new classical music since the late 1970s. He is a pianist and a specialist in many non-western musical instruments, especially the wind and string instruments of Asia. He is one of the most important and most varied collections of active instruments in the world. Lanier HAS Performed with diverse artists as as Philip Glass , Ornette Coleman , George Clinton , Vernon Reid , Terry Riley , Duncan Sheik , Pauline Oliveros , and Stanley Jordan .

Lanier also writes chamber and orchestral music . Current commissions include an opera That will premiere in Busan, South Korea, and a symphony, Symphony for Amelia , premiered by the Bach Festival SocietyOrchestra and Choir in Winter Park, Florida , in October 2010. [24] Recent commissions include “Earthquake! “A ballet that premiered at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco in April 2006; “Little Shimmers” for the TroMetrik set, which premiered at ODC in San Francisco in April 2006; “Daredevil” for the ArrayMusic chamber ensemble, which premiered in Toronto in 2006; A concert-length sequence of works for orchestra and virtual worlds (including “Canons for Wroclaw,” ” Poland, firsted in 2000; A triple concerto, “The Navigator Tree,” commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts and the American Composers Forum, premiered in 2000; and “Mirror / Storm,” a symphony commissioned by the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra , qui premiered in 1998. Continental Harmony Was a PBS special That documented the development and premiere of “The Navigator Tree” [25] won a CINE Golden Eagle Award . [26] Poland, firsted in 2000; A triple concerto, “The Navigator Tree,” commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts and the American Composers Forum, premiered in 2000; and “Mirror / Storm,” a symphony commissioned by the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra , qui premiered in 1998. Continental Harmony Was a PBS special That documented the development and premiere of “The Navigator Tree” [25] won a CINE Golden Eagle Award . [26] A symphony commissioned by the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra , which premiered in 1998. Continental Harmony was a PBSspecial that documented the development and premiere of The Navigator Tree [25] won a CINE Golden Eagle Award . [26] A symphony commissioned by the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra , which premiered in 1998. Continental Harmony was a PBS special that documented the development and premiere of The Navigator Tree [25] won a CINE Golden Eagle Award . [26]

In 1994, he released the classical music album Instruments of Change on POINT Music / Philips / PolyGram Records . [27] The album has been described as a Western exploration of Asian musical traditions by Stephen Hill on “The Crane Flies West 2” (episode 357) of Hearts of Space . [28] Lanier is currently working on a book, Technology and the Future of the Human Soul , and a music album, Proof of Consciousness , in collaboration with Mark Deutsch . [29]

Lanier’s work with Asian instruments can be heard extensively on the soundtrack of Three Seasons (1999), which was the first film ever to win both the Audience and Grand Jury awards at the Sundance Film Festival . He and Mario Grigorov scored a film called The Third Wave , which premiered at Sundance in 2007. He is working with Terry Riley on Bastard, the First .

Lanier HAS aussi pioneered the use of Virtual Reality in musical training performance with his band Chromatophoria, qui HAS Toured around the world as a headline act in coming Such As the Montreux Jazz Festival . He plays virtual instruments and uses real instruments to guide events in virtual worlds. In October 2010, Lanier collaborated with Rollins College and John V. Sinclair’s Bach Festival Choir and Orchestra [30] for his Worldwide Premiere of “Symphony for Amelia”.

Lanier contributes the afterword to Sound Unbound: Digital Music and Culture Sampling ( MIT Press , 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller aka DJ Spooky .

On May 9, 1999 Lanier authored a New York Times opinion piece titled “Piracy is Your Friend” in which he argued that the record labels were a great bigger threat to artists than piracy. Making an Ally of Piracy “,” The Making of Ally of Piracy “, with the same date. [31] The original article is quoted in a separate New York Times article by Neil Strauss, also with the same date. [32] On 20 November 2007 published a mea culpa sequel titled “Pay Me for My Content,” again in The New York Times. [33]

Memberships

The Microdisplay Corporation, and NY3D (Developers of Auto Stereo Displays), have been involved in a number of studies, including the University of Southern California , Medical Media Systems, Dartmouth College and Microdisplay Corporation. [34]

In mid-1997, he was a founding member of the National Tele-Immersion Initiative, [35] an effort devoted to utilizing computer technology to give people who are separated by great distances the illusion that they are physically together. Lanier is a member of the Global Business Network , [36] part of the Monitor Group .

In the media

He Has Appeared In Several documentaries, Including the 1992 Danish television documentary Computerbilleder – udfordring til virkeligheden (Eng Computer Pictures. – A Challenge to Reality), [37] the 1995 documentary Synthetic Pleasures , [37] and the 2004 television documentary Rage Against the Machines . [37] Lanier was credited as one of the miscellaneous crews for the 2002 film Minority Report . [37] Lanier stated that his role was to help make up the gadgets and scenarios. [4] [38] Lanier has appeared on The Colbert Report [39] and Charlie Rose . [40]

Awards

  • Carnegie Mellon University’s Watson Award in 2001 citation needed ]
  • Finalist for the first Edge of Computation Award in 2005. [38]
  • Honorary doctorate from New Jersey Institute of Technology in 2006 citation needed ]
  • IEEE Virtual Reality Career Award in 2009 citation needed ]
  • Named one of TIME’s 100 most influential people in 2010 citation needed ]
  • Honorary doctorate from Franklin and Marshall College in 2012 citation needed ]
  • Awarded the Goldsmith Book Prize for best trade book in 2014. [41]
  • Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 2014 citation needed ]

Works

Western classical music

  • Instruments of Change (1994), [42] POINT Music / Philips / PolyGram Records

Video games

  • Moondust ( C64 , 1983)
  • Alien Garden ( Atari 800 , 1982, with designer Bernie DeKoven [43] )

Books

  • Information Is an Alienated Experience , Basic Books , 2006. ISBN 0-465-03282-6 .
  • You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto , [44] New York: Alfred A. Knopf , 2010, ISBN 978-1-84614-341-0 .
  • Who Owns the Future? , San Jose: Simon & Schuster , UK: Allen Lane , 2013. ISBN 978-1-846145223 .

Further reading

  • Rosenbaum, Ron (Jan 2013). “The spy who came in from the cold 2.0” . Interview. Smithsonian . 43 (9): 24-28 . Retrieved 2016-03-25 . [45]

References

  1. Jump up^ Brustein, Joshua (May 23, 2011). “One on One: Jaron Lanier”. New York Times . Retrieved May 24, 2011 . Jaron Lanier, an architect at Microsoft Research, has a long and varied career in technology.
  2. Jump up^ “Virtual reality: Meet founding father Jaron Lanier” . New Scientist . Retrieved 2017-06-13 .
  3. Jump up^ “Brief Biography of Jaron Lanier (Jaronlanier.com)” .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b “Jaron Lanier” . The 2010 TIME 100 . 2010-04-29.
  5. Jump up^ Lewis, Peter H. (1994-09-25). “Sound Bytes; He Added ‘Virtual’ to ‘Reality ‘ ” . The New York Times . Archived from the original on 2011-03-05 . Retrieved 2011-03-04 .
  6. Jump up^ Burkeman, Oliver (2001-12-29). “The virtual visionary” . Guardian.co.uk .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b “The virtual curmudgeon” . The Economist. 2010-09-02.
  8. Jump up^ Savage, Emily (2010-10-20). “Renaissance man: Berkeley resident is a musician, a Web guru and the father of virtual reality” . j. The Jewish news weekly of Northern California . Archived from the original on 2011-03-07.
  9. Jump up^ Kahn, Jennifer (July 11, 2011). “The Visionary” . The New Yorker . Retrieved 28 August 2011 .
  10. Jump up^ “Online Collective Hazards” . Curious Ellie’s Annex . 2 June 2012 . Retrieved 10 July 2016 .
  11. Jump up^ Jones, Steve (2003). Encyclopedia of New Media . SAGE . pp. 280-282. ISBN  0-7619-2382-9 . See also: Hamilton, Joan O’C. (1993-02-22). Business Week as quoted in “Jaron Lanier.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004.
  12. Jump up^ Appleyard, Bryan (2010-01-17). “Jaron Lanier: The father of virtual reality” . The Sunday Times . Archived from the originalon 2011-03-07.
  13. Jump up^ “SUN’S BIG BURST INTO VIRTUAL REALITY” . Business Week Online. 1998-02-06 . Retrieved 2014-07-01 .
  14. Jump up^ McKenna, Barbara (2000-01-10). “Talking technology: A Q & A with the inventor of virtual reality” . UC Santa Cruz , Currents . Retrieved 2008-01-09 .
  15. Jump up^ Lanier, Jaron (November 10, 2000). “One-Half a Manifesto” . Edge.org . Retrieved July 13, 2013 .
  16. Jump up^ Lanier, Jaron (December 2000). “One-Half of a Manifesto” . Wired.com . Retrieved July 13, 2013 .
  17. Jump up^ Cave, Daniel (October 4, 2000). “Artificial Stupidity” . Living room . Retrieved June 23, 2013 .
  18. Jump up^ Lanier, Jaron (April 2006). “Why not morph? What cephalopods can teach us about language” . Discover.
  19. ^ Jump up to:b Lanier, Jaron (2006-05-30). “Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism” . Edge .
  20. Jump up^ Lanier, Jaron (8 July 2006). “Is this a good idea?” . Philosopher’s Zone, ABC National Radio .
  21. ^ Jump up to:b Lanier, Jaron (2006-12-25). “Beware the Online Collective”. Edge.
  22. Jump up^ Kakutani, Michiko (January 14, 2010). “A Rebel in Cyberspace, Fighting Collectivism” . New York Times . Retrieved 2 December2010 .
  23. Jump up^ Will Oremus (2013-05-03). “Slate Book Review: Facebook’s of the World, Unite!” . Living room.
  24. Jump up^ Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 and Lanier’s Symphony for Ameliaat bachfestivalflorida.org
  25. Jump up^ Continental Harmonyat PBS.org
  26. Jump up^ See “Sonos performances”Sonos.org
  27. Jump up^ Lanier, Jaron (1994). Instruments of Change . POINT Music / Philips / PolyGram Records. ASIN B00000418Q.
  28. Jump up^ “The Crane Flies West 2”. Hearts of Space . Episode 357. 13 May 1994.
  29. Jump up^ “Jaron Lanier’s Music Reel” . Homepage of Jaron Lanier . Retrieved 2006-07-18 .
  30. Jump up^ Bach Festival Choir and Orchestraathttp://www.bachfestivalflorida.org/
  31. Jump up^ “Making an Ally of Piracy” . The New York Times. 1999-05-09 . Retrieved 2016-08-31 .
  32. Jump up^ Neil Strauss (1999-05-09). “MUSIC, A Chance to Break the Pop Stranglehold” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2016-08-31 .
  33. Jump up^ “Pay Me for My Content” . The New York Times. 2007-11-20 . Retrieved 2016-08-31 .
  34. Jump Up^ Jaron Lanier@ Keynote Speakers Inc.ArchivedNovember 8, 2006, at theWayback Machine.
  35. Jump up^ “National Tele-Immersion Initiative” . Advanced Network & Services . Retrieved 2006-07-05 .
  36. Jump up^ “Individual GBN Members” . Global Business Network . Archived from the original on 2006-03-28 . Retrieved 2006-07-05 .
  37. ^ Jump up to:d “Jaron Lanier” . IMDb . Retrieved 2006-07-05 .
  38. ^ Jump up to:b “Brief Biography of Jaron Lanier” . Homepage of Jaron Lanier . Retrieved 2006-07-08 .
  39. Jump up^ “The Colbert Report” . Retrieved 17 April 2014 .
  40. Jump up^ “Charlie Rose” . Retrieved 17 April 2014 .
  41. Jump up^ “The Center for Public Integrity in Partnership with ABC News Win the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting” . The President and Fellows of Harvard College . Retrieved 17 April2014 .
  42. Jump up^ Jaron Lanier-Instruments of Change(ArkivMusic.com)
  43. Jump up^ Solomon, Robert. “The Shadow of Super Mario Clouds” . Game Design as Cultural Practice . Georgia Tech . Retrieved 1 October 2011 .
  44. Jump up^ “You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto – Jaron Lanier – Google Boeken” . Books.google.com . Retrieved 2012-08-29 .
  45. Jump up^ Smithsonian often changes the title of a print article when it is published online. This article is titled “What turned Jaron Lanier against the web?” online.

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