William Michael Connolley (born 12 April 1964) is a British software engineer, writer, and blogger on climatology . Until December 2007 he was Senior Scientific Officer in the Physical Sciences Division in the Antarctic Climate and the Earth System project at the British Antarctic Survey , where he worked as a climate modeller . After this he est devenu a software engineer for Cambridge Silicon Radio .
Connolley received national press attention over several years for his involvement in editing Wikipedia articles relating to climate change . Connolley was a member of the RealClimate website until 2007 and now operates a blog and discuss climate issues. He has also been active in local politics as a member of the Green Party .
Connolley holds an undergraduate degree in mathematics and a DPhil from St Edmund Hall at the University of Oxford for his work on numerical analysis .  He works as a software engineer for Cambridge Silicon Radio , designing embedded firmware. 
Until December 2007, Connolley was a senior scientist in the Antarctic Survey. His research focused on sea ice measurement and modeling, including the HadCM3 global climate model . Connolley also worked on the validation of satellite data against more direct upward looking sonar observations in the Weddell Sea area.           [ edit ] References The NASA and GCM predictions are more realistic than previously thought. 
Connolley served as a parish councilor in the town of Cotton (near Cambridge, England) up to May 2007.  He Was aussi a Green Party candidate for South Cambridgeshire District Council and Cambridgeshire County Council. 
Writing and editing
Connolley has authored and co-authored articles and literature reviews in the field of climatological research , with an emphasis on the climate of the Antarctic and the study of sea ice .  Connolley was a member of the RealClimate website until 2007,   and he operates a blog and discuss climate issues.   His blogs and one of his papers conclude that a majority of scientific papers in the 1970s predicted warming, not global cooling .    The Christian Science Monitor reported in 2007 that Connolley’s personal website, and as a contributor to RealClimate.
Connolley began editing Wikipedia in 2003  and served as a Wikipedia administrator from 2006 until 2009.  He has been cited and quoted in the media regarding these activities, especially with respect to his editing in the climate change area. He was cited by Nature magazine, in their December 2005 review of the reliability of Wikipedia , as an example of an expert who edits Wikipedia.  Nature quoted Connolley, in 2006, as saying that “some scientists have become frustrated with Wikipedia”.  In July 2006, A New Yorker article described him as briefly becoming “a victim of an editorial over the entry on global warming”, in which a skeptic repeatedly “watered down” the article’s explanation of the greenhouse effect .  Connolly told the magazine that Wikipedia “gives no privilege to those who know what they’re talking about”.  Various books have cited Connolley as an example of how expert editors on Wikipedia are given “no more credence” than anonymous editors of the site.    In 2007, The Sunday Times of London interview with Andrew Keen Connolley and his Wikipedia editing. It identified Connolley as “an expert on global warming”, stating: “After trying to correct inaccuracies day. ” The article stated that Wikipedia’s Arbitration Committee “gave no weight to [Connolley’s] expertise, and treated him with the same credibility as his anonymous opponent.” 
Two internal disputes at Wikipedia in which Connolley was involved received additional attention. In 2005 Wikipedia climate change argument Involving Breaches of etiquette , Rather than pleased bias, Was Cited By a paper in the Journal of Science Communication as an example That “resonated deeply as it highlight highlighted what can befall respecté experts Who wade into controversial wiki-waters” . The paper Stated That Connolley did “not Suffer fools gladly …”.  La même paper Noted to 2009 Wikipedia arbitration in qui It was Concluded That Connolley HAD used administrator privileges à son happy own advantage in disputes, and thesis Were privileges removed.  Other academic papers have discussed Connolley ‘ s editing activities are Wikipedia and the dispute resolution process as it has-been applied to _him_. 
- Jump up^ Connolley, WM (1989). Preconditioning of iterative methods for linearized or linear systems (D. Phil. Thesis). Oxford University: Oxford University Numerical Analysis Group. p. 208.
- Jump up^ Connolley, William. About PageStoat Blog
- Jump up^ Dr. William Connolley / Senior Scientific Officer / Climate Modeller / Physical Sciences Division . British Antarctic Survey . Retrieved 24 October 2010 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Connolley, WM “Sea ice concentrations in the Weddell Sea: A comparison of SSM / I, ULS, and GCM data” (PDF) . Retrieved 26 October 2010 .
- Jump up^ Internet Archive copy of Cotton Parish Website
- Jump up^ The Green Party South Cambs
- Jump up^ See for example,Vaughan, DG; Marshall, GJ; Connolley, WM; King, JC; Mulvaney, R. (2001). “CLIMATE CHANGE: Devil in the Detail”. Science . 293 (5536): 1777-9. PMID 11546858 . Doi :10.1126 / science.1065116 .
- Jump up^ Connolley, WM (6 December 2004). “William M. Connolley Filed under: * Contributor Bio’s – william @ 6 December 2004” . RealClimate. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007 . Retrieved 9 February 2010 .
- Jump up^ Connolley, William (1 December 2007). “Goodbye to all that”- announcement of departure from RealClimate. RealClimate. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Jump up^ Stoat Taking science by the throat …Connolley’s personal blog
- Jump up^ “Connolley’s webpage analyzing papers falling into a modern Ice Age” . Wmconnolley.org.uk . Retrieved 22 July 2010 .
- Jump up^ Peterson, TC; Connolley, WM; Fleck, J. (2008). “The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus” . Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society . 89 (9): 1325-1337. Bibcode :2008BAMS … 89.1325P . Doi : 10.1175 / 2008BAMS2370.1 .
- Jump up^ William Connolley (24 January 2005). “The global cooling myth” . RealClimate . Retrieved 30 December 2009 .
- Jump up^ William M. Connolley (2005). “Was an imminent Ice Age predicted in the 70’s? No” . Retrieved 16 December 2007 .
- Jump up^ Azios, Tony. “Global-warming skeptics: Is it only the news media that need to chill?” The Christian Science Monitor, 11 October 2007, accessed 24 May 2011
- Jump up^ “I am all powerful (part 2)” . Scienceblogs.com. 19 December 2009 . Retrieved 22 July 2010 .
- Jump up^ “A child’s garden of wikipedia, part I” . Scienceblogs.com. 4 January 2010 . Retrieved 26 October 2010 .
- Jump up^ Giles, J. (15 December 2005). “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head”. Nature . 438 (7070): 900-01. Bibcode :2005Natur.438..900G . PMID 16355180 . Doi : 10.1038 / 438900a .
- Jump up^ Giles, J. (5 October 2006). “Wikipedia Rival Calls in the Experts”. Nature . 443 (7111): 493. Bibcode : 2006Natur.443..493G . PMID 17024058 . Doi : 10.1038 / 443493a .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Schiff, S. (July 31, 2006). “Know It All: Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?” . The New Yorker . Retrieved 26 October2010 .
- Jump up^ Rosen, Larry D., Mark Carrier and Nancy A. Cheever. Rewired: Understanding the iGeneration and the Way They Learn , p. 120, Macmillan (2010)ISBN 0-230-61478-7
- Jump up^ Tammet, Daniel. Embracing the Wide Sky: A Tour Across the Horizons of the Mind , p. 206, Simon and Schuster (2009)ISBN1-4165-7618-5
- Jump up^ Keen, Andrew. The Cult of the Amateur: How Today’s Internet is Killing Our Culture , p. 43, New York: Doubleday (2007)ISBN 0-385-52080-8
- Jump up^ Flintoff, John-Paul. “According to Wikipedia I’m the Mona Lisa”,The Sunday Times, 3 June 2007, News Review p. 3
- ^ Jump up to:a b Mathieu O’Neil: ” Shirky and Sanger, or the costs of crowdsourcing “. Journal of Science Communication , Vol. 9, Issue 1, March 2010, International School for Advanced Studies
- Jump up^ See, eg,Forte, A .; Bruckman, A. (2008). “Scaling Consensus: Increasing Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance”. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS 2008) : 157-157. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.84.8022 . ISBN 0-7695-3075-3 . Doi : 10.1109 / HICSS.2008.383 . And the papers cited therein
- Jump up^ “William Michael Connolley” website. Wmconnolley.org, accessed 14 May 2011
- Jump up^ “William M. Connolley’s page about Fourier 1827: MEMORY of Earth’s Earth and Planet Earth Temperatures” . Wmconnolley.org.uk . Retrieved 22 July 2010 .