On January 18, 2012, Coordinated series of protests occurred contre two Proposed laws in the United States Congress -the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA). Protests were based on the bills, which were intended to provide more robust responses to copyright infringement (arising outside the United States). , And Internet communities. Protesters also argued that there were insufficient safeguards in place to protect sites based on user-generated content.

The move to a formal protest was initiated when some websites, including Reddit and the English Wikipedia , considered temporarily closing their content and redirecting users to a message opposing the proposed legislation. Others, such as Google , Mozilla , and Flickr , soon featured protests against the acts. Some shut down completely, while others kept some or all of their content accessible. According to protest organizer Fight for the Future , over 115,000 websites joined the Internet protest. [1] In addition to the online protests, there were also several demonstrations in several cities, including New York City, San Francisco and Seattle, And separately during December 2011 a mass boycott of then-supporter Go Daddy . The protests were reported globally.

The January protest, initially planned to coincide with the first SOPA hearing of the year, drew publicity and reaction. Days prior to the action, the White House issued a statement that it would “not support legislation that reduces freedom of expression, cybersecurity risk, or undermines the dynamic, innovative global Internet.” [2] On January 18, more than 8 million people looked up their representative on Wikipedia, [3] 3 million people emailed Congress to express opposition to the bills, [1] more than 1 million messages were sent to Congress through the Electronic Frontier Foundation , [4] a petition at Google recorded over 4.5 million signatures, [3] Twitter recorded at least 2.4 million SOPA-related tweets, [3] and lawmakers collected “more than 14 million names-more than 10 million of them voters-who contacted them to protest” the bills. [5]

During and after the January protest, a number of politicians who had previously supported the bills expressed with the proposals in their existing form, while others withdrew their support entirely. Internationally, “scathing” of the World Wide Web Inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee , [6] as well as the European Commissioner for the Digital Agenda . [7] Some observers were critical of the tactics used; The Boston Herald described the service withdrawals as evidence of “how very powerful these cyber-bullies can be.” [8] Motion Picture Association of America Chairman Chris Dodd stated that the coordinated shutdown was “an abuse of power given the freedoms these companies enjoy in the marketplace today.” [9] Others such as The New York Times saw the protests as “a political coming of age for the tech industry.” [10]

By January 20, 2012, the political environment regarding both bills had shifted. The Bills Were removed from further Top voting, ostensibly to be revised to take into consideration the issues raised, [5] aim selon The New York Times probably “shelved” following a “flight away from the bill”. [5] Opposers noted the bills had been “indefinitely postponed” but cautioned they were “not dead” and “would return.” [11]

Background

Main articles: PROTECT IP Act and Stop Online Piracy Act

Background to bills

The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA) are in the United States and the United States Senate in the last quarter of 2011. Laws against websites outside US jurisdiction. While the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other existing laws have been considered effective against illegal content or activities on US-based sites, [12] action is more difficult against overseas websites. [12] SOPA and PIPA Proposed to rectify this by cutting off infringing websites from Their US based funding (PARTICULARLY advertising ) Payment processes , appearances on search engines , and visibility on web browsers , instead. Major providers of all these services are predominantly US based. Notably, the provisions also involved modifying the DNS system , a crucial service that underpins the whole Internet and allows computers to locate each other reliably around the world.

The Motion Picture Association of America , the Recording Industry Association of America and the Entertainment Software Association . Supporters are not responsible for the use of any of the products listed on this site, and are not liable for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this product. Inasmuch as they originated outside the United States.

Those opposed to a mixture of technology and Internet companies and associations, content creators such as the Wikipedia community , free software authors, free speech organizations, lawmakers, and other websites and organizations, as well as members of the public using their services. (1) effects on internet websites, communities and user-generated content, and (2)

  • Effects on websites, web communities and user-generated content – The scope, language, definitions, procedures, remedies, and provision for immunity following wrongful allegations was seen as insufficiently narrow and well-defined. Legal analysts’ suggestion that, in the event of a dispute between the parties, the court may decide that it is not lawful for the court to make a decision. [13] [ not in citation given ] Perceived consequences include the undermining of the Internet , the devastation of the internet, and the widespread closure and chilling of websites, Particularly those including user-created content or organizations such as libraries providing reference information. [14] Observers also noted the laws could be used strategically against legitimate competitors or during elections . [6]
  • Effects on Critical Internet Architecture – Technical Experiments. Testimony of the proposed DNS measures conflicts with the fundamental basis of the Internet and would “break”.

Google ‘s policy director, Bob Boorstin, stated that a website like YouTube supporting user-generated content “would just go dark immediately” to comply with the legislation. [12] Tumblr , one of the first websites active in grassroots activism against the bills, added a feature that “censored” its website on November 16, 2011, and the social media aggregator Reddit also became deeply involved. [1]

Legislative and protest timeline

American Censorship Day ” on November 16, 2011, a first hearing by the US House Judiciary Committee was banned, popularly described as” American Censorship Day “.

On December 15, 2011, the first House Judiciary Committee mark-up took place for SOPA, prior to its eventual move to the House floor. [15] During the markup session, a number of proposals were made. The mark-up process was put on hold after the new year.

Around this time, many websites have been displaying banners and messages promoting their readerships to contact. SOPA in the House, as a Means of further protest. [16] Reddit was the first major site to announce an “Internet blackout” for January 18, 2012, and several other sites shortly followed, coordinating actions for that day. [17]

A notable political response to the November 2011 protests was the outlining in early December of a bipartisan third, alternative, bill with the support of technology companies such as Google and Facebook , [18] which unusually And suggestions in light of the wavespread protests related to the SOPA and PIPA bills. It was formally introduced as Online Protection and Enforcement of Digital Trade Act (OPEN) in the Senate on December 17 by Senator Ron Wyden and in the House on January 18 by Representative Darrell Issa . It has been proposed in the United States of America that it should be implemented in the context of the SOPA and PIPA. [19]

Online discussions of a blackout and concerns over the bills continued unabated after the markup hearing and increased in prominence. On January 11, Senator Patrick Leahy , the main sponsor for PIPA, Said of the DNS filtering provisions, “I will therefore propose que la positive and negative effects of this provision be Studied before implemented”, [20] Reported By Some papers have Relocation Of these provisions. [21] Opposers deemed this a tactical withdrawal allowance reintroduction to a later stage and ignoring other concerns as well as provisions in PIPA, and evidence that the bill had not been understood or checked by its own creators .

Mozilla’s SOPA protest, displayed here in Firefox , used censor bars as an ironic graphic device

Protests of November 16, 2011 (“American Censorship Day”)

This section needs expansion . You can help byadding to it . (January 2012)

On November 16, 2011, SOPA was discussed by the US House Committee on the Judiciary . Tumblr , Mozilla, Techdirt, and the Center for Democracy and Technology were among many Internet companies that protested by participating in ‘American Censorship Day’, by displaying black banners over their site logos with the words “STOP CENSORSHIP. [23]

December 2011 boycott of Go Daddy

On December 22, 2011, users at Reddit proposed a boycott and a public day for switching away from then-SOPA support Go Daddy , [24] the largest ICANN- accredited registrarin the world, known as Move Your Domain Day . [25] The date was later set as December 29, 2011. [26]

Popular websites that moved domains included imgur , [27] the Wikimedia Foundation , [28] and Cheezburger – which stated it would remove over 1,000 domains from Go Daddy if they continued their support of SOPA. [29]

On December 23, Go Daddy withdrew its support for SOPA, releasing a statement saying “Go Daddy will support it when the Internet community supports it.” [30] [31] CEO Warren Adelman stated when he could not commit himself to change his position on the record in Congress, but said “I’ll take that back to our legislative guys. step “; [32] when pressed, he said “We’re going to step back and let’s take leadership roles.” [32] Further outrage was due to the fact that many Internet sites would be subject to shutdowns under SOPA, but GoDaddy is in a narrow class of exempted businesses that would have immunity, [33]

On December 26, 2011, a Google bomb was started against Daddy to remove them from the # 1 place on Google for the term “Domain Registration” in retaliation for supporting SOPA. [34] This was then disseminated through Hacker News . [35] Reddit users rated that by December 22, 2011, SOPA supporters were discovering the backlash that could arise from ignoring social media users. [36]

Reports up to December 29 Daddy as “hemorrhaging” customers. [37] [38] On December 25, 2011 (Christmas Day), Go Daddy lost a net 16,191 domains as a result of the boycott. [39] However, on December 29 itself, Go Daddy gained a net of 20,748 domains, twice as many as it lost that day, attributed to a number of causes, in particular customers Their change of position over SOPA. [40] [41]

Protests of January 18, 2012

Protestors

Wikimedia community

The staff at the Wikimedia Foundation the moment the blackout happened

On December 10, 2011, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales drew focus to Concerns over SOPA, qui he Described as a “much worse law” than the DDL intercettazioni (Wiretapping Bill) [42] in Italy Some Months Earlier, qui Was being white fast -tracked through the United States Congressunder a “misleading title”. He Stated He Was Attending high-level meetings on this, and wanted to gauge the sense of the English Wikipedia community on the issue, and SPECIFICALLY on the issue of a blackout similar to That Held successfully in October 2011 by Italian Wikipediaeditors over-the Proposed Media censorship law in that country: [43]

I think it would be a good time to take a quick reading of the community feeling on this issue ….. To be clear, this is NOT a vote on whether or not to have a strike. This is merely a straw poll to indicate overall interest. If this poll is firmly “opposed” then I’ll know that now. But even if this poll is firmly in “support” we would obviously go through a lot of process to get some kind of consensus around parameters, triggers, and timing.

Following initial informal discussions which resulted in a positive response, a formal consultation titled “SOPA Initiative” was opened by the community to consider specific proposals and preferred options. These included matters such as location, or whether they should be disabled or not. Eventually, the discussion led to a decision strongly in favor of a 24-hour global blackout of the site on January 18, disabling normal reading and editing functions, affirmed in a vote of approximately 1,800 editors. [44] The blocking action was purposely not complete; Could users access Wikipedia happy from the mobile interface or mirror sites or If They disabled JavaScript or other web browser functions.

The vote formally affected the English Wikipedia only; Other language editions and Wikimedia projects have left to decide whether to hold their own protests given the potential worldwide impact of the legislation, with technical support on offer from the Foundation. [44] The editor communities of at least 30 other sister projects thing to do so. [48]

On January 17, 2012, Jimmy Wales affirmed the results of the community’s decision and that the Wikimedia Foundation , which hosts the English Wikipedia website, would support the community’s decision. He called for a “public uprising” against the proposed legislation, which critics would fear free speech. He has been a member of the community for a number of years, and has been a member of the Association for the Advancement of Women. Our survival … depends on us being principled “. [49] He commented on editors’ reasons for the decision: [49]

Free speech includes the right to speak. We are a community of volunteers. We have written this thing that we believe to be a gift to the world. We do not charge people for it. It’s freely available to anybody who wants to use it. We are a charity. And I think it’s important for people to realize that the ability of our community to come together and give this kind of gift to the world depends on a certain legal infrastructure that makes it possible for Incredibly important in terms of the creation of this kind of thing.

Wikimedia Executive Director Sue Gardner is a member of the Board of Directors . The post received over 7000 responses from the general public within 24 hours of its posting. [50] The blackout was to run for 24 hours starting at 05:00 UTC ( midnight Eastern Standard Time ) on January 18. [51]

Wikipedia editors blacked out of the blackout; One editor stated his “hand in which the puts the organization in the role of advocacy, and that’s a slippery slope”. [52]

Approximately 90% out of the 2097 editors who took part in the votes supported joining the blackout action. It is worth noting that this is the only way to get the most out of the US, which suggests that Wikipedia has an international community to express its opinion. The SOPA was perceived as a worldwide threat. [53] A Majority of editors who opposed the participation in the perceived dissonance between Wikipedia’s encyclopedic ethos, neutrality and active participation in a political outcome; Only 0.3% of participating editors suggested they support a tougher copyright regime. [54]

Other websites

According to protest organizer Fight for the Future , more than 115,000 websites participated in the protest, including Google and Wikipedia. [1] Websites That participated in the blackout included Cheezburger , Craigslist, Boing Boing , A Softer World , Cake Wrecks , Cyanide & Happiness , Demand Progress , Destructoid , Entertainment Consumers Association . Free Press , Failblog , Newgrounds , Good.is , GOG.com , Gamesradar , Xkcd as well as the corporate distribution of the Linux distribution openSUSE and the congressional websites of Silicon Valley representatives Anna Eshoo and Zoe Lofgren . [55] [56] [57] Google announced their intention to join the blackout by altering their logo for US visitors for the day, almost entirely obscuring it with an interactive black redaction swath. Clicking through the specially designed logo on the bills, and the opportunity to sign a petition to Congress. [58] [55] [56] [57] Google announced their intention to join the blackout by altering their logo for US visitors for the day, almost entirely obscuring it with an interactive black redaction swath. Clicking through the specially designed logo on the bills, and the opportunity to sign a petition to Congress. [58] [55] [56] [57] Google announced their intention to join the blackout by altering their logo for US visitors for the day, almost entirely obscuring it with an interactive black redaction swath. Clicking through the specially designed logo on the bills, and the opportunity to sign a petition to Congress. [58]

The Mozilla Foundation ‘s default page was one of the most popular.
Google Placed a censor bar over Their normal logo, qui When clicked Took visitors to pages with information is SOPA and PIPA.
Sites like the Creative Commonsprovided with a black and white background.
Many sites, like the Free Software Foundation , blacked out their pages and directly encouraged viewers to take action.

The Mozilla Foundation altered the default start page of their Firefox web browser, blacking it out and providing links with more information on the SOPA / PIPA bills and the opposition to them. [59]

TV Tropes posted atop the web page with the message “STOP SOPA”.

Mojang’s bestselling game Minecraft made a splash text that said “SOPA means LOSER in Swedish !”

A site called The Spoony Experiment , known for a cute robot mascot called Burton, changed the homepage into a more nightmarish version, involving a nightmarish version of Burton and the words “The Spoony Experiment” , Signifying the proposed death of several websites.

Wired magazine’s online website used JavaScript to spot black bars On Most of the text on Their page, as if the text Was redacted, outside of Their key item Regarding SOPA / PIPA; Readers could remove the bars with a mouse click. [60] [61]

The photo-sharing website Flickr created the Ability for a registered user to “censor” an unlimited number (up from initial year limit of ten) of pictures as demonstration of how SOPA / PIPA Would regulation affect the site; The user-selected photographs were greyed out, and included informational text. [62]

4chan ran a banner and “censored” posts by users we all picture boards, [63] qui Could Be viewed by hovering over ’em.

StumbleUpon added links to anti-SOPA / PIPA websites.

A video was circulated by the League for Gamers (founded by Mark Kern and supported by ScrewAttack , Extra Credits , and LoadingReadyRun ) protesting the Entertainment Software Association ‘s support of SOPA’ s support to boycott the ESA ‘s popular E3 convention . [64]

Physical demonstrations

In addition to the online blackouts, protests in cities such as New York City, San Francisco, and Seattle were held on January 18 to raise awareness of the two bills. [65] [66]

A series of pickets against the bills were held at the US Embassy in Moscow. Two picketers were arrested. [67]

Reaction

Pre-protest

The announcement of the blackout was reported worldwide. Media That covered the story included ABC Australia , [68] CBC , [69] BBC , [70] der Spiegel , [71] Le Figaro , [72]The World , [73] Liberation , [74] Fox News , [75 ] The Guardian , [76] MENAFN, [77] News Limited , [78] Sky News , [79] The Age , [80] The Hindu , [81] The New York Times , [82] [83] Taipei Times , [84] The Washington Post , [85] The Wall Street Journal [86] and The Times of India . [87]

Several media organizations including The Washington Post , The Guardian , and NPR encouraged a ” crowdsourcing solution for those who are searching for answers” during the Wikipedia blackout by inviting users to ask questions on Twitter using the hashtag #altwiki. [88]

An executive of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) dubbed the blackout plan an example of the “gimmicks and distortion” that inflamed passions while failing to solve the problem of copyright infringement by “draw [ing] Is a real problem, which is that foreigners continue to steal the hard work of Americans. [89] Former US Senator and MPAA Director Chris Dodd stated that the coordinated shutdown was “also an abuse of power given the freedoms these companies enjoy in the marketplace today.” [9]

Dick Costolo , CEO of social networking site Twitter , rejected calls for Twitter to join the protest, tweeting that “[c] losing a global business in reaction to single-issue national politics is foolish.” [90] Originally, some thought Costumers refer to all blackout movements on January 18, but afterwards clarified that he was referring to a hypothetical blackout of Twitter, and that he was supportive of the Wikipedia blackout itself. [91]

The sponsor of the bill, Representative Lamar Smith , called the blackout a “publicity stunt,” and stated with reference to Wikipedia that “it is a misrepresentation of misinformation about the Stop Online Piracy Act.” [92]

On January 17, 2012, in response to growing concerns over PIPA and SOPA, the White House stated that it “will not support legislation that reduces freedom of expression, cybersecurity risk, or undermines the dynamic, innovative global Internet.” [2]

SOPA / PIPA tweet levels, 3 days to 23.00 UTC [18:00 EST] 18 January, showing the blackout’s impact. (The early peak is Largely from the Western USA, For Whom blackout started 9:00 p.m. January 17,. The dip in the middle is nighttime in North America ( details ))

January 18

The Wikimedia Foundation reported that there were over 162 million visits to the black-out version of Wikipedia during the 24-hour period, with at least 8 million uses of the site. [3] [93] The use of Wikipedia’s front page increased enormously during the blackout with 17,535,733 page views recorded, compared with 4,873,388 on the previous day. [94] A petition created and linked to by Google Recorded over 4.5 million signatures, [3] while the Electronic Frontier Foundation Reported That more than 1 million email messages sent to congressmen through Were Their website During the blackout. [4] MSNBC reported that over 2. 4 million Twitter posts about SOPA, PIPA, and the blackouts were made during a 16-hour period on January 18; This included Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg , who had not used the service since 2009, to encourage his followers to contact their congressmen. [95] [96] Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) , a key opponent of the bills, said that “lawmakers had more than 14 million names – more than 10 million of them” to protest the legislation. [5] Who had not used the service since 2009, to encourage his followers to contact their congressmen. [95] [96] Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) , a key opponent of the bills, said that “lawmakers had more than 14 million names – more than 10 million of them” to protest the legislation. [5] Who had not used the service since 2009, to encourage his followers to contact their congressmen. [95] [96] Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) , a key opponent of the bills, said that “lawmakers had more than 14 million names – more than 10 million of them” to protest the legislation. [5]

Time Reported That HAD before the day ended, “the political dominoes Began to fall … then trickle turned into flood”. [97] It named ten senators who had announced their switch to opposing the bills and stated that “almost twice that many House members” had done so. [97]

During the blackout, libraries at several universities used the outage to remind students that the traditional paper encyclopedias were available for research. Students who grew up turning to the internet to look up information were encouraged to visit the library as an alternative source of information. [98] On Twitter, a joke hashtag #factswithoutWikipedia trended with users posting humorous fake “facts.” [99] “Startled” Internet users frustrated or angry at their loss of Wikipedia for the day used Twitter as an outlet; Politicians likewise turned to Twitter when overwhelmed by the public communications flood in support of the blackout. [97] CTV news in Canada published a “survival guide” for “getting around the blackout” Wikipedia during the protest. [100] CTV to the Protest ” A date that will be live in ignorance .” [101] Creative America , a coalition of movie studios, entertainment unions, and television networks, used by the Internet; Such ads Appeared at Times Square in New York City and is various websites. [66] Wikipedia during the protest. [100] CTV to the Protest ” A date that will be live in ignorance .” [101] Creative America , a coalition of movie studios, entertainment unions, and television networks, used by the Internet; Such ads Appeared at Times Square in New York City and is various websites. [66] [101] Creative America , a coalition of movie studios, entertainment unions, and television networks, used by the Internet; Such ads Appeared at Times Square in New York City and is various websites. [66] [101] Creative America , a coalition of movie studios, entertainment unions, and television networks, used by the Internet; Such ads Appeared at Times Square in New York City and is various websites. [66]

Post-protest

Erik Möller of the Wikimedia Foundation about the Blackout at the opening of the San Francisco Wikipedia Hackathon (two days after the blackout)

The impact of the coordinated action is considered to be significant. Yochai Benkler of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society stated that the January 18 blackout was “a very strong public demonstration to suggest that what has been seen “You’ve got millions of citizens who care enough to act. That’s not trivial.” [102] California House member Darrell Issa called the collective effort an unprecedented means for upsetting a backroom lobbying effort, [103] and the immediate political efficacy of the widespread protest was expressed in terms of a sleeping giant having awakened and of a new player being in town. [104] One Silicon ValleyLobbyist said the content industry had “a lot to learn,” noting that they do not have grassroots support: “There are no Facebook pages to call your congressman to support PIPA and SOPA.” [105] The New York Times , which framed the netizens’ revolt in terms of the new economy versus the old economy, [106] headlined the activism as a “political coming of age for the tech industry.” [10] (James Grimmelmann,

Newspaper editorials had mixed views. The Boston Herald called the protest a “hissy fit” by “Internet powerhouses” saying, “within hours of the online protest, political supporters of the bill … began dropping like flies, so proving how very powerful these cyber-bullies can be . ” [8] The New York Times described the protest as “Noted, but as a Brief Inconvenience” [108] and, as well, offered an opinion about the protest and possible accomplishments. [109] BBC News technology writer Rory Cellan-Jones Was of the opinion que la blackout Achieved objective purpose icts Possibly Has Some cost to Wikipedia’s reputation. [110] Bill Keller was a member of the Board of Trustees of the United States of America. The hacker anarchists of Anonymous. ” [111]

Wikipedia editing levels before, during and after the blackout

Media columnist David Carr wrote in the New York Times that there were two lessons, one being that “People who do not understand the Web should not try to re-engineer it”, and the other Customers, in the struggle between media and technology companies, the latter have a much more chronic, and would more likely prevail. [112]

Motion Picture Association of America chairman Chris Dodd admis que la content industry HAD lost the Public Relations battle with the Internet industry, Adding That “[y] ou’ve got an opponent Who has the capacity to reach millions of people with a click of a Mouse and there’s no-checker. They can say whatever they want. ” [113] Dodd called for Hollywood and Silicon Valley to work out a compromise on the legislation, [114] but was also criticized for a statement on Fox News to the effect that politicians would risk Industry proposals.

Threats like that are not the way to conduct the serious, sober discussions that are needed to figure out exactly what ails the movie industry and to come up with solutions. It was Hollywood’s arrogance in pushing bills through Congress without proper vetting that caused them to be withdrawn; These threats are also helpful in figuring out what ails the industry and how to solve their issues.

Among other media industry reactions, Creative America was of the view that “[t] hey’ve misidentified this issue as an issue about your Internet, your Internet is being jeopardized. They’re misleading their huge base. ” [118] Recording Industry Association of America President Cary Sherman Noted que la Major television networks supported the legislation aim Unlike Wikipedia and Google, Did not use Their platforms to try to square shape opinion: “when Wikipedia and Google purport to be neutral sources of Information that is not only not neutral but affirmatively incomplete and misleading,

Rep. Lamar Smith, Who sponsored SOPA, flatly Stated in a commentary is Fox News That “This bill does not Threaten the Internet. Aim it does Threaten the profits generated by foreign criminals Who target the US market and willfully steal intellectual property by trafficking in counterfeit gold Pirated goods. ” [120] While speaking on the Senate floor on January 23 Senator Leahy reiterated his objections to the protests, saying:

Websites like Wikipedia and YouTube … would not be subject to the provisions of the bill. That Wikipedia and some other websites decided to “go dark” on January 18 was their choice, self imposed and was not caused by the legislation and could not be.
It was disappointing that sites were linked to descriptions of this legislation that were misleading and one-sided. The Internet should be a place for discussion, for all to be heard and for different points of view to be expressed. That is how truth emerges and democracy is served. Last week, however, many were subjected to false and incendiary charges and sloganeering designed to inflame emotions. [121]

International responses

World Wide Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee “scathingly” [6] attacked the SOPA and PIPA legislation. Speaking at an industry event in Florida he Praised the protests by major websites for the Attention They HAD drawn, and the Bills Described as a “serious threat to the openness of the Internet” that “had to be stopped”: [6]

The laws have been put together to allow the government to turn off the web and the government can make people turn off the site without trial …. There are times when that could be very powerful and damaging, like Before an election and it is crossing a line and we have to protect the Internet as an open space, we have to respect it. [6]

Two days later, Vice President of the European Commission and European Commissioner for the Digital Agenda Neelie Kroes Described the bills as “bad legislation” that would “Threaten the basic foundation of the success of the web.” [7] She also said there “should be safeguarding benefits of open net.” “Speeding is illegal too but you do not get speed bumps on the motorway,” she said. [122]

Related protests

SOPA and PIPA protests were overlapped and followed by protests against ACTA which had a similar sense. The ACTA treaty was signed by 22 Member States in Europe and was expected to be signed before March 2012 by the other left Cyprus, Estonia, Netherlands and Slovakia, and thus would have gained legal force for the whole European Union. On February 11, more than 200 European cities took part in a widespread protest against ACTA. [123] [124] Although protests were held in Europe, the signing of ACTA was led by USA, Australia, Canada, South Korea, Japan, New Zealand, Morocco and Singapore. October 1, 2011, in Tokyo. [125]However,

Legislative impact and aftermath

During the day of January 18, six of PIPA’s sponsors in the Senate, including Marco Rubio , PIPA’s co-sponsor, Orrin Hatch , Kelly Ayotte , Roy Blunt , John Boozman and Mark Kirk , stated that they would withdraw their support for the bills . [126] Several other congressmen issued statements of the current versions of both bills. [127] [128]

By the following day, eighteen of the 100 senators, including eleven of the original sponsors of the PIPA bill. [129] By one account, the shift in stated positions on SOPA / PIPA by members of Congress had gone overnight from 80 for and 31 against to 65 for and 101 against. [130] An initial floor vote was scheduled for January 24, Prime Minister Harry Reid announced that Senator Patrick Leahy , to work out In the bill “to forge a balance between protecting Americans’ intellectual property, and maintaining openness and innovation on the Internet.” [5] [131] Similarly, the House Judiciary Subcommittee chairman, Representative Lamar S. Smith , announced that further voting on SOPA would be placed on hold until it is wider agreement on a solution. [132] [133] Later, an updated The New York Times news story reported that the two bills were “indefinitely shelved.” [5] House Committee on Oversight Chairman Darrell Issa commented that “This unprecedented effort has turned the tide against a back-lobbying effort by those who are not used to being told ‘no'”, describing the events as a responsible and transparent exercise Of freedom of speech “. [134] Opposers cautioned that although “postponed,” the bills were “not dead” and “would return.” [11]

Months after the protests, in July 2012, The New York Times summarized events as follows: [135]

Wikipedia went black to protest SOPA and more than seven million people signed online petitions, many of which said the bills would “break the Internet.” Congress, overwhelmed by the popular opposition, quickly backpedaled, leaving the legislation to die.

Other proposed laws

According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), “SOPA and PIPA are really only the tip of the iceberg. Negotiate international trade agreements that would compel the signatory nations to conform to the same legal standards. ” [138]

Examples cited by EFF include: [138]

  • The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a pending international treaty signed by the United States in October 2011, is similar to SOPA. [139] On 4 July 2012, the European Parliament declared its consent, effectively rejecting it, 478 votes to 39, and 165 abstentions. [140] [141]
  • The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (TPP) – IP terms controversy
  • Special 301 Reports – a United States copyright law mandating annual global IP and law reports, Explicitly to protect and act in favor of US intellectual property owners contre Any other country’s domestic or foreign policies or measures not conforming to United States’ positions. Threat of action under Special 301 has been used to insert US lobbyist-written legislation into other countries’ laws. [142]

Examples considered “similar to SOPA / PIPA” by other analyzes:

  • Ireland’s Proposed Law ” SI No. 337/2011 – European Communities (Electronic Communications Networks and Services) (Universal Service and Users’ Rights) Regulations 2011 ” [143] has-been Described by news media as “Ireland’s SOPA.” [144] As a statutory instrument , no parliamentary vote is required to pass this into law.
  • Russia’s proposed law Duma Bill 89417-6, [145] titled “Russia’s SOPA”: poorly defined and unclear definitions of which sites are liable Under its censorship provisions), and using a flawed blocking mechanism (the blocking of IP addresses, which can be shared by many sites). [146]

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