An infobox is a template used to collect and present a subset of information about its subject, such as a document . It is a structured document containing a set of attribute-value pairs , [1] and in Wikipedia represents a summary of information about the subject of an article . [2] In this way, they are comparable to data tables in some aspects. When it comes to the larger document it is an infobox that is often presented in a sidebar format.

An infobox may be implemented in another document by transcluding it into a document and specifying some or all of the attribute-value pairs associated with that infobox, known as parameterization .


An infobox may be used to improve the appearance of an article on Wikipedia; [3] They are used on similar articles to ensure consistency of presentation by using a common format. [4] [2] Originally, infoboxes (and templates in general) were used for layout purposes. [2] The guideline Wikipedia: Manual of Style / Infoboxes has details of infoboxes. An infobox may be transcluded into an article by specifying the value for some or all of its parameters . [5] The parameter name used must be the same as in the infobox template, but may be associated with it. [5] The name is delimited from the value by an equals sign . [5] The parameter name may be regarded as an attribute of the article’s subject. [6]

{{Infobox prepared food
| Name =
| Image =
| Imagesize =
| Caption =
| Alternate_name =
| Country =
| Region =
| Creator =
| Race =
| Type =
| Served =
| Main_ingredient =
| Variations =
| Calories =
| Other =
{{Infobox prepared food
| Name = Crostata
| Image = Crostata di mele e mandorle di Adriano a profilo.jpg
| Imagesize =
| Caption = Apple crostata with slivered almonds
| Alternate_name =
| Country = [[Italy]]
| Region =
| Creator =
| Course = [[Dessert]]
| Type = [[Tart]]
| Served =
| Main_ingredient = Pastry crust, [[jam]] or [[ricotta]], fruit
| Variations 'Crostata di frutta', '' crostata di ricotta '', many other sweet or savory variations
| Calories =
| Other =
The infobox Infobox prepared food on Wikipedia food-related articles, with no values specified for its parameters (attributes). The same infobox as in the article crostata . Note That values are to the right of the equals sign (=), and parameter names are que la la même as Those in the specification for the infobox template. The gains are in wiki markup : entries enclosed in square brackets (eg – [[Tart]]) will be rendered as a link to the respective Wikipedia article (eg – Tart ) and the linked file will be transcluded into the section in place Of its markup.
The infobox for the Wikipedia Article Crostata rendered by a web browser engine was desktop computer

On Wikipedia, an infobox is transcluded into an article by enclosing its name and attribute-value pairs within a double set of braces . The MediaWiki software is qui Wikipedia Operates Then parses the document, qui for the infobox and other templates are processed by a template processor . This is a template engine qui Produces a web documentand a style sheet used for presentation of the document. This enables the design of the infobox to be separated from the content it manipulates; [2] that is, the design of the template may be updated without affecting the information within it, And the new design will automatically propagate to all articles that transclude the infobox. [4] Usually, the infoboxes are formatted to appear in the top-right corner of a Wikipedia article in the desktop view, [3] or at the top in the mobile view.

Placement of an infobox within the wiki text of an article is important for accessibility . [7] A best practice is to place the following disambiguation templates, but before all other content . [8] [9]

Baeza-Yates and King say that some editors find templates such as infoboxes complicated, [10] as the template may hide text about a property or resource that the editor wishes to change; This is exacerbated by chained templates, that is templates transcluded within other templates. [10]

As of August 2009, English Wikipedia used about 3,000 infobox templates that collectively used more than 20,000 attributes. [11] Since then, many have been merged, to reduce redundancy. As of June 2013, there were at least 1,345,446 transclusions of the parent Infobox template, [12] used by some, but not all, infoboxes, on 4,251,127 articles.

The name of an infobox is typically “Infobox [genus]”, however the more widely used infoboxes often have taxpayers given to them, like taxonomy for taxonomy, [8] warbox for military conflicts, and geobox for geography.

Machine learning

About 44.2% of products contained Wikipedia infobox year in 2008, [13] and about 33% in 2010. [11] Automated semantic knowledge extraction using machine learning algorithms is used to “machine-processable extract information at a Relatively Low complexity cost”. [1] HOWEVER, the low coverage Makes it more difficulty, though this can be Partially Complementing Overcome by Article With That data in categories in the article est qui included. [13] The French Wikipedia initiated the Infobox Version 2 project in May 2011. [14] [15]

Knowledge acquired by machine learning can be used to improve an article, such as by using automated software suggestions to editors for adding infobox data. [13] The iPopulator is an automated parsing of the text of that article. [11]

DBpedia uses structured happy Extracted from infoboxes [2] by machine learning algorithms to create a resource of linked data in a Semantic Web ; It has been described by Tim Berners-Lee as one of the most famous components of the linked data project. [16]

Machine extracting a triple consisting of a subject, predicate or relation, and object. [1] Each attribute-value pair of the infobox is used to create an RDF statement using an ontology . [17] This is facilitated by the narrower gap between Wikipedia and an ontology that exists between unstructured or free text and an ontology. [18]

The semantic relationship between the subject and the object is established by the predicate. [1] In the example infobox, the triple (“crostata”, type, “tart”) indicates that a crostata is a type of tart . The article’s topic is used as the subject, the parameter name is used as the predicate. [17] [1] Each type of infobox is mapped to an ontology class, and each property (parameter) within an infobox is mapped to an ontology property. [19] These mappings are used when parsing a Wikipedia article to extract data.

Many Wikipedia infoboxes also include microformat markup, making the text rendered on the page readable by software. [20] [21]


  1. ^ Jump up to:e Baeza-Yates & King 2009 , p. 31.
  2. ^ Jump up to:e Liyang 2011 , p. 385.
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Broughton 2008 , p. 357.
  4. ^ Jump up to:b Broughton 2008 , p. 17.
  5. ^ Jump up to:c Broughton 2008 , p. 18.
  6. Jump up^ Baeza-Yates & King 2009, p. 30.
  7. Jump up^ Broughton 2008, p. 234.
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Broughton 2008 , p. 235.
  9. Jump up^ TheWikipedia articleabout accessibility in theWikipedia: Manual of Style / Accessibility. The policy aboutwiki textlayout is specified atWikipedia: Manual of Style / LayoutandWikipedia: Manual of Style / Lead section.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Baeza-Yates & King 2009 , p. 345.
  11. ^ Jump up to:c Lange, Böhm & Naumann 2010 .
  12. Jump up^ “Jarry1250’s Toolserver Tools – Template transclusion count” . List of Wikimedia projects . 7 June 2013 . Retrieved 7 June 2013 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:c Baeza-Yates & King 2009 , p. 28.
  14. Jump up^ Geertman, Reinhardt & Toppen 2011, p. 493.
  15. Jump up^ The project is hosted on theWikipediapageInfobox / V2.
  16. Jump up^ Miller 2008.
  17. ^ Jump up to:b Liyang 2011 , p. 387.
  18. Jump up^ Virvou & Matsuura 2012, p. 315.
  19. Jump up^ Liyang 2011, p. 395.
  20. Jump up^ Wikipedia: WikiProject Microformats
  21. Jump up^ Heilman 2009.


  • Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; King, Irwin, eds. (2009). Weaving services and people on the World Wide Web . Springer. ISBN  9783642005695 . LCCN  2009926100 .
  • Broughton, John (2008-07-14). Barber, Nan; Meyers, Peter, eds. Wikipedia – The Missing Manual . O’Reilly Media . ISBN  9780596553777 .
  • Geertman, Stan; Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Toppen, Fred, eds. (2011). Advancing geoinformation for a changing world . Reading notes in geoinformation and cartography . 1 . Springer. ISBN  9783642197888 . ISSN  1863-2246 . LCCN  2011925152 . Doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-642-19789-5 .
  • Heilman, Chris (2009-01-19). “Retrieving and displaying data from Wikipedia with YQL” . Yahoo Developer Network . Yahoo. Archived from the original on 2011-01-27 . Retrieved 2009-01-19 .
  • Lange, Dustin; Böhm, Christoph; Naumann, Felix (2010). Extracting Structured Information from Wikipedia Articles to Populate Infoboxes . Technische Berichte des Hasso-Plattner-Institutes for Softwaresystemtechnik an der Universität Potsdam, Hasso-Plattner-Institut für Softwaresystemtechnik Potsdam . Universitätsverlag Potsdam. ISBN  9783869560816 .
  • Yu, Liyang (2011). A Developer’s Guide to the Semantic Web . Springer. ISBN  9783642159695 . Doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-642-15970-1 .
  • Miller, Paul (2008-02-07). “Sir Tim Berners-Lee Talks with Talis about the Semantic Web” . Transcription by CastingWords. Talis Group. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10 . Retrieved 2013-06-02 .
  • Virvou, Maria; Matsuura, Saeko, eds. (2012). Knowledge-based Software Engineering: Proceedings of the Tenth Joint Conference on Knowledge-Based Software Engineering . Frontiers and Artificial Intelligence and Applications . 240 . IOS Press. ISBN  9781614990932 . LCCN  2012943674 .

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