Open-source Judaism [1] is a name given to initiatives within the Jewish community employing Open Source and open-source licensing strategies for collaboratively creating and sharing works about or inspired by Judaism. Open-source efforts in Judaism please use licensing strategies by qui contemporary products of Jewish Culture under copyright May be adopté, adapté, and Redistributed with credit and allocation accorded to the creators of thesis works. Often collaborative, These efforts are comparable to those of other open-source religious initiatives inspired by the free culture movement to openly share and broadly disseminate seminal texts and techniques under the aegis of Copyright law . Combined, thesis describe open source year movement initiatives in Judaism That gains proper attribution of sources, creative sharing in an intellectual Commons , flexible future-proof technologies, open technological standards, open access to primary and secondary sources and Their translations, and personal autonomy In the study and craft of works of Torah.

Sharing Torah in Rabbinic Judaism

Unencumbered access to educational resources, the importance of attribution, and limiting proprietary claims on intellectual property, are all matters, common to open-source , the free culture movement , and rabbinic Judaism . Open-source Judaism concerning itself with or works of Jewish culture are shared in agreement with Jewish teachings concerning proper stewardship of the Commons and civic responsibilities of property ownership. [2]

The rhetorical virtue of parrhesia appears in Midrashic literature as a condition for the transmission of Torah . Connoting open and public communication, parrhesia appears in combination with the term, δῆμος ( Dimus , short for Dimosia ), translated coram publica , in the public eye, ie open to the public [3] As a method of communication it is Repeatedly Described in Terms analogous to a Commons . Parrhesia is an associated with the owner of a wilderness of primary mytho-geographic import, the Midbar Sinai in which the Torah was initially received. The dissemination of the Torah is as follows: [4] Here is the text from the Mekhilta where the term dimus parrhesia appears (see bolded text).

ויחנו במדבר – תורה נתנה דימוס פרהסיא במקום הפקר, שאלו נתנה בארץ ישראל, היו אומרים לאומות העולם אין להם חלק בה, נתנה לפיכך דימוס פרהסיא , במקום הפקר, וכל הרוצה לקבל יבא ויקבל. מפני מה לא ניתנה תורה בארץ ישראל? שלא ליתן פתחון פה לאומות העולם, לומר לפי שנתנה בארצו לפיכך לא קבלנו עלינו. דבר אחר: שלא להטיל מחלוקת בין השבטים, שלא יהא זה אומר בארצי נתנה תורה וזה אומר בארצי נתנה תורה , לפיכך נתנה במדבר, דימוס פרהסיא במקום הפקר.בשלושה דברים נמשלה תורה במדבר ובאש ובמים לומר לך מה אלו חנם לכל באי העולם אף דברי תורה חנם לכל באי העולם . [5]
Torah was given over dimus parrhesia in a maqom hefker (a place belonging to no one). For it was given in the Land of Israel, they would have had cause to say to the nations of the world, “you have no share in it.” Thus was it given dimus parrhesia , in a place belonging to no one: Why was the Torah not given in the land of Israel? In order that the peoples of the world should not have the excuse for saying: ‘Because it was given in Israel’s land, therefore we have not accepted it. Another reason: To avoid causing dissension among the tribes [of Israel]. Else one might have said: In my land the Torah was given. And the other might have said: In my land the Torah was given. Therefore, The Torah was given in the Midbar (wilderness), dimus parrhesia , in a place belonging to no one. To the Torah is likened to the Midbar (wilderness), to fire, and to water. This is the Torah of the Torah. The Torah is free. [6] So too are the words of the Torah free to all who come into the world. [6] So too are the words of the Torah free to all who come into the world. [6]

Torah must cultivate in oneself. The Torah must be cultivated in oneself. In the midrashic work, Bamidbar Rabbah (1: 7), an exegesis based on the phonetic name Similarities entre les Sinai , and the word she’einomeaning “that is not,” is offert:

“God spoke to Moshe in the Sinai wilderness” (Numbers 1: 1). This teaches us anyone That That Is not ( she’eino ) Making Themselves into a midbar hefker (a wilderness Belonging to no one) can not ACQUIRE Wisdom and Torah, and so it s’intitule in the Sinai wilderness.

The question of whether ḥidushei torah , Jewish liturgy, and derivative and related work are in some sense proprietary is subordinate to the importance given to preserving the lineage of a teaching. According to a mishnaic teaching of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi , the 48th attribute of an excellent student is their capability in citing a teaching in the name of the one they learned it from. [7]

The question of whether new works of Torah are given the status of property is a question born of the commodification of printed works, competition, and prestige in modernity. In their academic article “Is Copyright Property – The Debate in Jewish Law,” Neil Netanel and David Nimmer explain that,

Rabbinic Tradition, Theory and Practice, Vol . Jewish law and religion. Jewish law and religion. [8] Some argue, accordingly, that authors of ḥidushei torah may not assert a right to profit from their sale. Other mitigate that rule by distinguishing between the intangible work, that is the actual teaching in the book or tape, on the hand, and the authorization Distributing the copies of his work, on the other.

Selon Rabbinic Jewish teaching, the primary sin committed by the people of Sodom Was Their insistence on the absolute primacy of property, Declaring That “what is mine is mine and what is yours is yours.” [10]

As applied by Rabbinic jurists, the rule contre acting like a Sodomite Gives rise to three limitations can you copyright Even Assuming That copyright is property. First, if an author HAS created and disseminated His work with no intention of profiting from it, he Suffers no economic loss Even If Reviews another benefits from His work without paying for it, and THUS Such an author might be acting like a Sodomite Were he to Insist on payment after the fact. [11] Second, the rule contre Sodomite behavior supports the view of Rabbinic Some jurists That private copying is permitted so long as the copy-have Otherwise Would not you purchased the copy and the author THUS causes no loss. [11] Third, the rule might be the basis for limiting copyright’s duration for published works. In His seminal ruling Rejecting a perpetual, proprietary copyright while conceding That authors-have an exclusive right to print Their unpublished manuscripts, [Rabbi] Yitzhak Schmelkes [1828-1905] Reasoned That the author copying causes no damage (as distinct from foregone profit) ounce the first edition has-been sold, and THUS que la contre rule Sodomite behavior negates Any continuing claim the author might-have to enforce an exclusive right to print Following The first edition. [12] And so the rule against Sodomite behavior negates any continuing claim the author may have to enforce an exclusive right to print following the first edition. [12] And so the rule against Sodomite behavior negates any continuing claim the author may have to enforce an exclusive right to print following the first edition. [12]

What is akin to copyright in Jewish law in part derives from exclusive printing privileges that have rabbinic authorities have issued since the invention of the printing press and date back to 1518. These privileges typically give the publisher the exclusive right to print the book for a period of Ten to twenty years or until the first edition has been sold (ie, after the author or heirs have recovered their investment). According to the minority position of Rabbi Joseph Saul Nathanson (1808-1875), a copyright is itself a property right arising out of the right of ownership. However, according to the majority position of Rabbi Yitzhak Schmelkes, “the author’s exclusive right to publish a manuscript and sell a copyrighted copy in the text, determination on the legal treatment of works of Jewish liturgy and ḥidushei Torah depends upon a basic facet of Rabbinic Jewish law: Dinah malkhuta dina -the law of the land is (accorded to the status of) the Law. [13] Under United States copyright law, for instance, all newly created “creative” works are considered as intellectual property and ownership property rights which restrict the adaptation and redistribution of the works by others without explicit permission granted by the copyright owner. determination on the legal treatment of works of Jewish liturgy and ḥidushei Torah depends upon a basic facet of Rabbinic Jewish law: Dinah malkhuta dina -the law of the land is (accorded to the status of) the Law. [13] Under United States copyright law, for instance, all newly created “creative” works are considered as intellectual property and ownership property rights which restrict the adaptation and redistribution of the works by others without explicit permission granted by the copyright owner.

To establish a community based on ḥesed (lovingkindness), the custom has long been for individuals to share or provide others with personal possessions as needed. The institution of the G’MaḤ provided a practical example for the sharing of books, tools, and services. The ideal of contributing to or forming one’s own G’MaḤ was popularized by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838-1933), who addressed many halakhic questions about the practice and the spiritual benefits of lending property in chapter 22 of his work, Ahavat Ḥesed ( Loving Loving-kindness , 1888): “[Lending property] stems from compassion and constituutes a mitzvah, as ḤaZa” Lhave pointed out: ” Tzedaka is performed with one’s money; Hesed with one’s money and one’s self. ” [14] Rashi Explains Hesed here to mean the lending of money, chattels (personal property), livestock-all being white included in the mitzvah .” [15]

Free-Libre and Open-source Software

Prior to the coinage and adoption of the term ” Open Source ” in 1998, several Jewish computer scientists, typographers, and linguists developed free software of interest to Jews, students of Judaism, and readers of Hebrew. “Free software” is a free software that is free under the GPL license , where the definition of “free” is maintained by .

Much of the development of free and open source software was developed by Israeli computer scientists and programmers for the display, analysis, and manipulation of Hebrew text. This development has been celebrated by Hamakor a secular organization founded in 2003 to promote free and open source software in Israel.

Calendar Calculus

The earliest example of free software written for GNU Emacs Emacs developed by Nachum Dershowitz and Edward Reingold in 1988, which included a Jewish calendar . [16]This calendar code was further adapted by Danny Sadinoff in 1992 as hebcal . [17] Such software provided a proof-of-concept for the utility of Open Source for innovative and useful software for the Jewish and Hebrew speaking community. In 2005, the LGPL licensed Zmanim project was begun by Eliyahu Hershfeld (Kosher Java) to maintain open source software and code libraries for calculating zmanim ,

Morphological Analysis

In 2000, Israeli linguists Nadav Har’El and Dan Kenigsberg began development of an open-source Hebrew morphological analyzer and spell-checking program, Hspell ( official website ). In 2004, Kobi Zamir created a GUI for Hspell. The Culmus Project developed Nakdan , a semi-automatic diacritics tool based on Wiktionary for use with Open Office and LibreOffice .

Digital Typography

In September 2002, Maxim Iorsh publicly released v.0.6 of Culmus, a package of Unicode Hebrew digital fonts licensed under the GPL, free software license. [18] These and other fonts shared with SIL-OFL and GPL + FE licenses, provided the basic means for displaying open-source licenses.

Canonical Jewish and liturgical texts (and some modern Hebrew poetry) depend on diacritics for vocalization of Hebrew. Upon the introduction of the Unicode 4.0 standard in 2003, the Culmus Project, SIL , and other open-source typographers were able to begin producing digital fonts supporting the full range of Hebrew diacritics. In this paper, we present the results of the study of the SIL NRSI team. The Open Siddur Project.Heavyweight fonts organized by license, typographer, style, and diacritical support. [19]

Complex Text Layout

Throughout the 2000s, the display and rendering of Hebrew with diacritics Improved with Support of complex text layouts , bidirectional text , and right-to-left (RTL) Positioned text in Most Popular open-source web browsers [20] (eg, Mozilla Firefox , [21] Chromium ), text editors ( LibreOffice , OpenOffice ), and graphic editors ( GIMP ). (Eg, Inkscape , LyX , and Scribus [22] [23] ).

Hebrew Script OCR

In 2005, Kobi Zamir, began development of the first Hebrew OCR to recognize Hebrew diacritics, hOCR , released open-source under the GPL. A GUI, qhOCR soon followed. By 2010, development on hOCR had stalled; Legacy code is available on Github . In 2012, researchers at Ben-Gurion University began training open-source Tesseract-OCR to read Hebrew with niqud . [24] Meanwhile, open-source OCR software supporting other Jewish languages ​​written in Hebrew script is in development, namely, Jochre for Yiddish, being developed by Assaf Urieli. Urieli explains the difficulty of supporting Hebrew with diacritics in OCR software:

The possible combinations are huge: This method is based on an algorithm based on the classification of an algorithm. It would be better to imagine a two-pass algorithm: the first pass recognizes the letter, and the second pass recognizes the diacritics (niqqud + cantillation). However, this would require development in Jochre – it’s hard to guess how much without analyzing further. Note that Yiddish does not suffer from the same difficulty, since it is very little used, and only in certain fixed places (eg komets aleph, etc.). [25]

“Open Source Judaism”

The term “Open Source Judaism” first appeared in Douglas Rushkoff’s book Nothing Sacred: The Truth about Judaism (2003). Rushkoff used the term “Open Source” for Judaism in describing a democratic organizational model for collaborating in a commonly held religious-cultural source code : the Oral and Written Torah . Rushkoff conceived of Judaism as essentially an open-source religion, which he considered as a religion is not a pre-existing truth but an ongoing project. It may be divinely inspired, but it is a creation of human beings working together. A collaboration. ” [26] For Rushkoff, Open Source offered the promise of enacting change through a new culture of collaboration and improved access to sources. “Anyone who wants to do Judaism should have access to Judaism.” Judaism is not just something that you do, it’s something you enact. [27]

Rushkoff’s vision of an Open Source Judaism Was comparable to Some Other expressions of open-source religion Explicitly Advocating for doctrinal reform or change in practice. As an expression of Open Source Judaism, in 2002 Rushkoff founded a movement called Reboot . “The object of the game, for me, was to recontextualize Judaism as an entirely open source proposal.” [28] (Rushkoff subsequently left Reboot When He felt icts funders HAD Become Concerned more with marketing and publicity of Judaism than icts actual improvement and evolution. [29] )

Open source advocacy by open-source Jewish project. “This decision tree helps copyright owners choose the right free / free license for the type of cultural or technological work they want to share: software, hardware, art, music, or scholarly work.” [30]

Early confusion over the means by which “open-source” collaborative projects , led some Jewish social entrepreneurs inspired by Rushkoff’s idea to develop their work without indicating a license, publicly sharing code, or attributing content. [31] Others offered “open source” as a model to be emulated but expressed no understanding of the role open source open source licensing in open-source open source judaism. [32] Many advocates for the adoption of Open Source in Judaism now work to clarify the meaning of ” open ” and ” free ,” Convince projects and to soliciting user-generated content to adopt free-Culture supports Open Content licensing. [33]

Instead of rallying around Open Source as a means towards religious reform as Rushkoff suggested, other open-source Jewish projects as non-denominational and non-prescriptive. They see free-culture and open-source licensing as a practical means towards preserving culture, improving participation, and supporting educational goals in an era of shifting media formats and copyright restrictions. In an interview with the Atlantic Magazine, the open-source founder of Open Siddur Project , Aharon Varady, explained,

Songs, and more. – all rights reserved. All rights reserved. This article is part of a series of articles on the subject of technological development. They are limited by legal forces which assume creative interests in their work. ” [34]

Open source offered a licensing strategy that could be used for helping a community of users remix user-generated content such as translations of liturgy in the preparation of new prayerbooks, or for anyone to simply access Of copyright infringement. Creative Commons ( CC0 , CC-BY , and CC-BY-SA ), provided the basis of this strategy. The three non-conflicting “free” licenses by the free-culture advocacy group . By 2012, Dr. Dan Mendelsohn Aviv observed that,

Jewish users, too, have embraced this do-it-yourself and open source ethos. Jewish artifact, they also construct a Jewish community that often extends both temporarily and physically beyond the scope of the original project. Riffing on [Eric S.] Raymond [‘s ” The Cathedral and the Bazaar “], Jewish users are definitely creatures of the bazaar as they revisit, reconsider and, in some cases, rework many of the seminal texts in Jewish life: Siddur, the Tanakh, the var torah (sermon), the Haggadah, and The Book of Legends. These “open source projects” will not only involve users at their individual level of learning and commitment, But created connections and forged bonds between individuals across time zones and denominations. [35]

Open Content Projects

The Open Siddur Project , a digital humanities project sharing Jewish liturgy and liturgy-related work that is developing a web-to-printapplication.

ALTHOUGH a work of radical 1960s Jewish counterculture Rather than year Explicitly religious work, the satirical songbook Listen to the Mocking Bird (Times Change Press, 1971) by the Fugs ‘ Naphtali “Tuli” Kupferberg contains the Earliest explicit mention of “copyleft” in a Copyright disclaimer. [36]

While digital editions of biblical and rabbinic sources have been proliferated on the World Wide Web by the mid-2000s, many of these have lacked information as to the origin of their digital texts. Common Torah database applications such as the Bar-Ilan Responsa Project and Hebrew text editing software such as Davka Corps. DavkaWriter, rewired on end-user license agreements explicitly forbidding the texts in the public domain. Copyrighted works, “All Rights Reserved.” Many scholarly databases containing transcripts of manuscripts and digital image collections of scanned manuscripts (eg hebrewbooks. Org) lacked open access policies. In 1999, the Hebrew equivalent of Project Gutenberg, Ben Yehudah Project , was established in Israel as a digital repository of Hebrew literature in the Public Domain (excepting religious texts). The limited scope of Ben Yehuda ‘s project. [37] The limited scope of Ben Yehuda ‘s project. [37] The limited scope of Ben Yehuda ‘s project. [37]

Open Content Licensing and Public Domain dedications provide the basis for open-source and open-source projects of particular interest to Hebrew readers and students of Judaism. The importance of compatible licensing can not be understated. In the summer of 2009, the content of the Wikimedia Foundation was adopted. Open Content licensing in response to incompatibilities between the GNU Free Document and the Creative Commons copyleft license. After this, other non-Wikimedia Foundation projects using Open Content licensing were finally able to exchange content with Wikipedia and Wikisource under a common standard copyleft. This license transition was equally important because of the use of a multi-user collaboration.

Torah Databases and the Digital Humanities

Inside and outside the Jewish community, digital humanities projects Often developed by scholars in academic institutions and theological seminaries, Provided the basis for open source initiatives later. The Westminster Leningrad Codex, a digital transcription of the Leningrad Codex maintained by the J. Alan Groves Center for Advanced Biblical Research at the Westminster Theological Seminary Was based on the Michigan-Claremont Westminster Electronic Text of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (1983) and shared with A Public Domain dedication. [38]

Hebrew Wikisource Was created in 2004 to Provide a free and Openly licensed home for what is Known in Israel as the “Traditional Jewish Bookshelf,” THUS filling the need left by Project Ben Yehudah. The digital library at Hebrew Wikisource Consists not just of texts That-have-been typed and proofread, drank aussi Hundreds of texts That-have-been punctuated and formatted (as a moyen de Making Them available to modern readers), texts are linked in tens of Thousands of places to source and parallel literature (as a well of Facilitating the conversation entre generations That is a feature of the traditional bookshelf), texts That-have collaboratively Produced commentaries (Such as the Mishnah), and texts That-have-been corrected in new editions based there Manuscripts and early versions. While Hebrew Wikisource is open to all texts in Hebrew, and not just to Judaica It has Primarily Focused on the lath Because The vast majorité of public domain texts are Rabbinic Hebrew ones. Hebrew Wikisource was the first independent language-domain of Wikisource. In 2009, Yiddish Wikisource was created.

In 2013, Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish and a small team completed a carefully corrected draft of a new digital experimental edition of the Tanakh at Hebrew Wikisource, Miqra al-ha-Mesorah , based on the Aleppo Codex and related manuscripts, Consulting the full range of masoretic scholarship. [39]

In 2010, Moshe Wagner began work on a cross-platform Torah database called Orayta. Source code is licensed GPL and copyrighted content is licensed CC-BY. [40]

In 2012, Joshua Foer and Brett Lockspeiser began work on developing a free-culture licensed digital library of canonical Jewish sources and a web application for generating “sourcesheets” from this repository. The Sefaria Project organizes the translation of essential works of rabbinic Judaism, such as the Mishnah , and seeks English translations of many other seminal texts. The project uses a combination of CC-BY and CC0 licenses to share its digital library and foster collaboration of its paid and volunteer contributors. Certain seminal works, notably the JPS 1985 and the Steinsaltz translation of the Talmud ,

Web-to-Print Publishing

In August 2002, Aharon Varady proposed the creation of an “Open Siddur Project,” a digital humanities project developing a database of Jewish liturgy and related work and a web-to-print application for Users to contribute content and compile their own siddurim. [41] All content in the database would be sourced from the Public Domain or else shared by copyright owners with Open Content licenses. Lack of available fonts supporting the full range of Hebrew diacritics in Unicode. The idea was revived on New Year’s Eve December 2008 when Varady was introduced to Efraim Feinstein who was pursuing a similar goal. In the summer of 2009, The renewed project was publicly launched with the help of the PresenTense Institute, an incubator for social entrepreneurship. [42] While the application remains in development, all code for the project is publicly shared on GitHubwith an LGPL . Meanwhile, liturgy and related work being white is shared at With Any one of the three Open Content licenses authored by the Creative Commons : the CC0 Public Domain dedication, the CC BY attribution license, and the CC BY-SA Attribution / Share Alike license . [43] The Open Siddur Project also maintains a package of open source licensed Unicode Hebrew digital fonts collecting fonts from Culmus and other open-source font foundries. [44] Wikisource is currently the transcription environment for digitizing the Public Domain by the Open Siddur Project.

Encyclopedic References

In July 2004, WikiProject Judaism was founded on Wikipedia . The project Helped Incorporate Numerous items from the Encyclopaedia Judaica (1906), a Public Domain reference work in order to be shared and expanded upon under the terms adopté by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Other Educational Tools

In 2011, Russell Neiss and Rabbi Charlie Schwartz were supported by the Jewish New Media Fund in building PocketTorah, a portable app for studying the chanting of the Torah weekend reading. Torah chanted according to the Ashkeanzic custom. All recordings used in the software were shared with CC BY-SA licenses and contributed to the Internet Archive . All code for the app was shared with an LGPL. [45]

Community Support for Open-source Judaism

Projects that are not funded through competitive grants are supported by a combination of volunteer contributions, small donations, and out-of-pocket expenses by project organizers. Hubs for Social Entrepreneurshipand Jewish Education in Open Source and Open Content. In 2009, the PresenTense Institute in Jerusalem served as the meeting place for Aharon Varady, Russel Neiss , and Rabbi Charlie Schwartz (PocketTorah). Another hub for Open Source in the Jewish world has been Mechon Hadar . The umbrella institution of the Halakhic Egalitarian yeshiva, Yeshivat Hadar, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported The institution has been a hub for open-source community initiatives. In 2009-2010, Mechon Hadar provided Aharon Varady with a community project grant for the Open Siddur Project. In April 2015, Aharon Varady and Marc Stober co-founded the Jewish Free Culture Society in order to better support its open-source projects. [46] Meadow Hadar provided Aharon Varady with a community project grant for the Open Siddur Project. In April 2015, Aharon Varady and Marc Stober co-founded the Jewish Free Culture Society in order to better support its open-source projects. [46] Meadow Hadar provided Aharon Varady with a community project grant for the Open Siddur Project. In April 2015, Aharon Varady and Marc Stober co-founded the Jewish Free Culture Society in order to better support its open-source projects. [46]

See also

  • Arts & Crafts Movement and DIY ethic
  • Autonomy
  • The Commons and The Tragedy of the Commons
  • copyfraud
  • copyleft
  • Copyright
  • End-User License Agreement
  • Free content and Open content
  • Free Culture Movement
  • GeMaḤ
  • Gratis Vs. Free (free without payment)
  • License Compatibility
  • Open Source Licensing and Open Source History
  • Open source religion
  • Public Domain


  1. Jump up^ Douglas Rushkoff, who originated the term, consistently capitalizedOpen Source Judaism(see the citations in later sections). Open Sourcemay be capitalized in recognition of the use of theOpen Source Definitionas a trademark of theOpen Source Initiative, although open source itself is not a trademark. When not referring to SPECIFICALLY Rushkoff’s ideas, this article Generally the employees lowercase, hyphenated formopen source Judaism, similar to the usual form for Analogous movements Such Asopen-source softwareandopen-source religion.
  2. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “‘Make yourself into a Maqom Hefker’: Teachings on Open Source in Judaism (sourcesheet)” . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 19 December 2014 .
  3. Jump up^ A meaning found inSylloge lnscriptionum Graecum, 2nd edition, ed. Diltenberger 1888-1901, no. 807, an inscription from after 138 CE
  4. Jump up^ Bamidbar Rabbah1: 7
  5. Jump up^ “Rebbi Yishmael Mekhilta” . The Sefaria Project . Retrieved 26 May 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ “5”, Rabbi Ishmael’s Mekhilta , Baḥodesh Tractate, JHU, on Shemot 20: 2, ISBN  978-0-82761003-3 .
  7. Jump up^ Pirkei Avot . pp. 6: 6.
  8. Jump up^ That prohibition has been narrowly applied to enable a rabbinic functions and fulfillment. For further discussion, see Neil W. Netanel, Maharam of Padua c. Giustiniani: The Sixteenth-Century Origins of the Jewish Law of Copyright, 44 HOUS. L. REV. 821, 862 (2007).
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Neil Netanel and David Nimmer. “Is Copyright Property – The Debate in Jewish Law” (PDF) . Theoretical Inquiries in Law . 12(217): 217-251.
  10. Jump up^ Mishna Avot 5:10,Pirkei Avot5:13
  11. ^ Jump up to:b Cohen, Yaakov Avraham. Emeq Ha-Mishpat , Vol. 4: Zekhuyot Yotsrim [ Valley of the Law , Vol. 4: Copyright] (1999) (Hebrew)
  12. Jump up^ Schmelkes, Yitzhak. Beit Yitzhak, Yoreh De’ah, Pt. 5, No. 75 (Pyzemsyl 1875) (Hebrew)
  13. Jump up^ Shilo, Shmuel. Dina De-Malkhuta Dina(Dfus Akademi 1974) (Hebrew).
  14. Jump up^ Talmud Bavli Sukkah 49b
  15. Jump up^ Kagan, Yisroel Meir (1888). Ahavat Ḥesed .
  16. Jump up^ Reingold, Edward M. “calendar.el — calendar functions” . . Free Software Foundation, Inc . Retrieved 5 December 2014 .
  17. Jump up^ Sadinoff, Danny. “Hebcal: A Perpetual Jewish Calendar” . GitHub . Hebcal . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  18. Jump up^ Iorsh, Maxim. “Version 0.6 of Culmus fonts released (2002-09-10 17:44)” . Culmus-announce . Culmus . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  19. Jump up^ “נטוםיק דופ פתוב ביוקידוד – Open Source Licensed Unicode Hebrew Fonts” . . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 8 March 2015 .
  20. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “Web Browser Testing for Unicode Hebrew Text and CSS @ font-face: Bi-directional and CSS @ font-face Unicode Hebrew Text Test Results” . . Retrieved 8 March 2015 .
  21. Jump up^ “Bug 60546 – [BiDi] Unicode Hebrew / Yiddish Diacritics do not properly align in some fonts” . Firefox Bugzilla .
  22. Jump up^ “0001726: hebrew vowels (and cantillation marks) not placed properly” . Scribus Bugzilla . Retrieved 8 December 2014 .
  23. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “Scribus looking for help with Hebrew layout bugs” . Opensiddur-tech forum . Google Groups.
  24. Jump up^ Documentation is available here[1]and[2].
  25. Jump up^ “Open Siddur Project: FAQ: Technical Questions” . . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 7 March2015 .
  26. Jump up^ Rushkoff, Douglas (2004). Nothing Sacred: The Truth about Judaism . USA: Three Rivers Press. ISBN  1400051398 .
  27. Jump up^ Lehmann-Haupt, Rachel (2003-06-11). “Is Judaism Becoming Irrelevant?” . AlterNet . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  28. Jump up^ Rushkoff, Douglas (2003-05-09). “Open Source Religion” . G4 TV . Retrieved 8 December 2013 .
  29. Jump up^ “Digital Minds Blog: Media Resistance – An Interview with Douglas Rushkoff” . 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25 .
  30. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “A Decision Tree for Choosing Free-Free Licenses for Cultural and Technological Work” . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 9 December 2013 .
  31. Jump up^ Content shared with the Creative Commons licenses apply That non-commercial (NC) and no-derivatives (ND) terms can not be happy with Legally remixed with shared open content licenses due tolicense compatibilityissues.
  32. Jump up^ Kullock, Joshua. “Creative Openings” . . American Joint Distribution Committee . Retrieved 11 December2013 .
  33. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “If You Love Torah, Set It Free (2013-10-14)”. The Sova Project . The Sova Project . Retrieved 7 December2013 .
  34. Jump up^ Jacobs, Alan. “The Potential and Promise of Open-Source Judaism (2012-06-12)” . The Atlantic . The Atlantic Monthly Group . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  35. Jump up^ Mendelsohn Aviv, Dan (2012). End of the Jews: Radical Breaks, Remakes, and What Comes Next . Toronto, Canada: Key Publishing, Inc. p. 174. ISBN  978-1-926780-07-8 .
  36. Jump up^ Kupferberg, Naphtali (1971). Listen to the Mocking Bird: Satiric Songs to Tunes You Know . Washington, New Jersey: Times Change Press . Retrieved 11 May 2016 .
  37. Jump up^ This description of Hebrew Wikisource, the impetus for its creation, its history and the current nature of its activity, are based upon a presentation at the2013 EVA / Minerva Jerusalem International Conference on To the Jewish Canon “; A summary of the discussion ishere.
  38. Jump up^ “Westminster Leningrad Codex” . J. Alan Groves Center for Advanced Biblical Research . Westminster Theological Seminary . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  39. Jump up^ Kadish, Seth (Avi). “מקרא על פי המסורה | Miqra` al pi ha-Mesorah: A New Experimental Edition of the Tanakh Online (2013-08-25) “. The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  40. Jump up^ Wagner, Moshe. “Orayta” . Google Code . Orayta.
  41. Jump up^ Varady, Aharon. “The Open Siddur Project (2002-10-13)” . Aharon Varady’s Homepage . The Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2002-10-13 . Retrieved 5 December 2013 .
  42. Jump up^ Ahren, Raphael (2009-07-03). “Prayer Ala Card” (PDF) . Ha’aretz . Retrieved 5 December 2013 .
  43. Jump up^ “FAQ” . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 7 December2013 .
  44. Jump up^ “נטוםיק דופ פתוב ביוקידוד | Free / Free and Open Source Licensed Unicode Hebrew Fonts” . The Open Siddur Project . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  45. Jump up^ “PocketTorah is Here” . PocketTorah . Notabox Media Lab . Retrieved 7 December 2013 .
  46. Jump up^ “About” . The Jewish Free-Culture Society . Retrieved 11 April2015 .

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