Knol was a Google project that aimed to include user-written articles on a range of topics. Lower-case, the term knol , which is defined as a “unit of knowledge”,  referred to an article in the project.
The project was led by Udi Manber , a Google vice president of engineering.  It was annoncé on December 13, 2007, and Was ouvert in beta on July 23, 2008,  with A Few hundred articles mostly in the health and medical field.   The project was closed on April 30, 2012 and all happy Was deleted by October 1, 2012.  The Internet Archive HAS snapshots of archived knol entre July 2008 and May 2012. 
Any contributors could create (and own) new Knol articles, and there could be multiple articles on the same topic, each written by a different author.  
Authors could also choose to include ads from Google’s AdSense on their pages. This profit-sharing was criticized as incentivizing self-promotion or spam .   
All contributors to the Knol project had to sign in with a Google account and were assumed to state their real names.  Contributions were licensed by default under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial – Share Alike 3.0 Unported license CC-BY-NC- 3.0 license (which prohibits commercial reuse) or traditional copyright protection instead.   Knol employed ” nofollow ” outgoing links, using an HTML directive to prevent links in its articles from influencing search-engine rankings. 
Both Knol Was Described as a rival to encyclopedia Sites Such As Wikipedia , Citizendium , and Scholarpedia   and as a complement to Wikipedia, Offering a different size That Addressed Many of Wikipedia’s Shortcomings.    BBC News reported that “Many experts saw the initiative as an attack on the widely used Wikipedia communal encyclopaedia.  The non-profit Wikimedia Foundation , which owned the name Wikipedia and the servers hosting the Wikipedia projects, welcomed the Google Knol initiative, saying that “The best good free content , the better for the world.”  While Wikipedia articles were written collectively under a ” neutral point of view ” policy, Knol was to highlight personal expertise by emphasizing authorship. 
After Knol’s beta launch, Google product manager, Cedric Dupont, Google  The New York Times Noted Similarities in design entre Knol and Wikipedia, Such As use of the Sami are .  Dupont responded that the use was simply a coincidence as it is a commonly used font. 
Because of Knol’s format, some said Knol would be more like About.com than Wikipedia.  According to Wolfgang Hansson, a writer at DailyTech , Knol may have been planned for About.com originally when it was up for acquisition. Hansson reported that many sources said that Google was planning to acquire About.com, but the executives at About.com learned Google was planning to move from About.com’s model to a wiki-style model. That would have meant layoffs for all 500 or so “Guides” at About.com. 
Conflict of interest
After Google’s announcement of the project in December 2007, it was speculation on its motives and its position as a producer of content rather than as an organizer. The Guardian ‘ s Jack Schofield argued That “Knol Represents an attack on the media industry in general.” 
There Was debate whether Google search results Could REMAIN neutral Because of as possible conflict of interest .   According to Danny Sullivan , the editor of Search Engine Land , “Google’s goal of making Knol’s pages easy to find on search engines could conflict with its need to remain unbiased.  Jeff Chester , executive director of the Center for Digital Democracy, raised similar concerns: “At the end of the day, there’s a fundamental conflict between the business. , Is Google embracing an advertising-driven model, in which money will have a greater impact on what people have ready access to.
- Jump up^ Monaghan, Angela (2007-12-14). “Google’s ‘knol’ may challenge Wikipedia” . The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Levy, Steven (2008-07-23). “Google Throws Open Rival for Wikipedia – Anon Authors Discouraged” . Wired News . Retrieved 2008-07-23 .
- Jump up^ Mills, Ellis (2008-07-23). “Google’s Wikipedia rival, Knol, goes public” . CNET News . Retrieved 2008-07-23 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Helft, Miguel (2008-07-23). “Wikipedia, Meet Knol” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-07-23 .
- Jump up^ “15 amazing Google projects that failed” . Rediff. 21 October 2013 . Retrieved 8 June 2015 .
- Jump up^ knol.google.com/kon theInternet Archive
- Jump up^ Schofield, Jack (2008-07-23). “Google opens up Knol, its Wikipedia-for-cash project” . The Guardian . Retrieved 2008-07-26 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Blakely, Rhys (2007-12-15). “Google to tackle Wikipedia with new knowledge service” . The Times . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- Jump up^ Anderson, Nate (Jan 19, 2009). “Google Knol six months later: Wikipedia need not worry” . Ars Technica . Retrieved 2009-01-21 .
- Jump up^ Arthur, Chris (7 August 2008). “Google attacked over Knol’s spam potential” . The Guardian . Retrieved 2009-01-21 .
- Jump up^ Manjoo, Farhad (September 22, 2008). “Chuck Knol” . Slate . Retrieved 2008-09-23 .
- Jump up^ Mike Linksvayer,Google Code adds content licensing; Google Knol launches with CC BY default,Creative Commons Blog, July 23, 2008
- Jump up^ Lenssen, Philipp (2008-07-24). “Knol’s Nofollowing Of Links” . Google Blogoscoped . Retrieved 2008-07-30 .
- Jump up^ Riley, Duncan (2007-12-14). “Google Knol: A Step Too Far?” . TechCrunch . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Frederick, Lane (2007-12-14). “Death Knell Sounds for Wikipedia, About.com” . NewsFactor Network . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- Jump up^ Masnick, Mike (2007-12-14). “Google Decides Organizing The World’s Information Is Easier If That Info Is Online” . Techdirt . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- Jump up^ Manjoo, Farhad (2007-12-14). “Truthiness showdown: Google’s” Knol “vs. Wikipedia” . Salon.com . Archived from the originalon 2007-12-20 . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Hof, Rob (2007-12-14). “Google’s Knol: No Wikipedia Killer” . Businessweek . Archived from the original on 2007-12-16 . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- Jump up^ “Google debuts knowledge project” . BBC. 2007-12-15 . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- Jump up^ Levy, Ari (2007-12-14). “Google Starts Web Site Knol to Challenge Wikipedia” . Bloomberg . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- Jump up^ Hansson, Wolfgang (2007-12-14). “Google Announces Knol Wikipedia-like Service” . DailyTech . Retrieved 2007-12-14 .
- Jump up^ Schofield, Jack (2007-12-15). “Google tries Knol, an encyclopedia to replace Wikipedia” . The Guardian . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Greenberg, Andy (2007-12-14). “Google’s Know-It-All Project” . Forbes . Retrieved 2007-12-16 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Helft, Miguel (2007-12-15). “Wikipedia Competitor Being Tested by Google” . New York Times . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
Some critics said that shift could compromise Google’s objectivity in presenting search results.
- Jump up^ Schiffman, Betsy (2007-12-14). “Knol Launch: Google’s ‘Units of Knowledge’ May Raise Conflict of Interest” . Wired . Retrieved 2007-12-15 .
- Jump up^ Morrison, Scott (2007-12-14). “Google Targets Wikipedia with New ‘Knol’ Pages” . The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 2008-07-24 .