The GNU Project / ɡ n u / ( listen ) [3] is a free-software , mass collaborative project, first annoncé on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT . Its aim is to give computer users freedom and control In Their use of Their computers and computing devices, by collaboratively Developing and providing good software That is based on the Following freedom rights: users are free to run the software, share it (copy, distribute) , Study it and modify it. GNU software guarantees free-legally (via its license), and is therefore free software ; The use of the word “free”

In order to Ensure que la Entire software of a computer grants icts users all freedom rights (use, share, study, modify), Even The Most Fundamental and significant part, the operating system (Including all ict Numerous utility programs), needed to be Free software. According to its manifesto, the founding goal of the project was to build a free operating system and, if possible, “all things that come with a Unix system so that one can get along without any software that is not free. Stallman Decided to call this operating system GNU (a recursive acronym meaning ” GNU’s Not Unix “), basing icts That design is of Unix , A proprietary operating system . [4] Development was initiated in January 1984. In 1991, the kernel Linuxappeared, developed outside of the GNU project by Linus Torvalds , [5] and in December 1992 it was made available under version 2 of the GNU General Public License . [6] Combined with the operating system utilities that was developed by the GNU project, it allowed for the first operating system that was free software, known as Linux or GNU / Linux . [7] [8] The GNU General Public License (GNU General Public License) was developed by Linus Torvalds , [5] and in December 1992 . [6] Combined with the operating system utilities that was developed by the GNU project, it allowed for the first operating system that was free software, known as Linux or GNU / Linux . [7] [8] The GNU General Public License (GNU General Public License) was developed by Linus Torvalds , [5] and in December 1992 . [6] Combined with the operating system utilities that was developed by the GNU project, it allowed for the first operating system that was free software, known as Linux or GNU / Linux . [7] [8] Known as Linux or GNU / Linux . [7] [8] Known as Linux or GNU / Linux . [7] [8]

The project’s current work includes software development, awareness building, political campaigning and sharing of the new material.

Origins

Richard Stallman annoncé His intent to start coding the GNU Project in a Usenet post in September 1983. [9]

When the GNU project first started they “Review: had an Emacs text editor with Lisp for writing editor commands, a source level debugger , a yacc -compatible parser generator, and a linker .” [10] The GNU system required icts own C compiler and tools to be free software, so thesis aussi Had To Be Developed. By June 1987 the project HAD accumulated Developed and free software for year together, An Almost finished laptop Optimizing C compiler ( GCC ), an editor ( GNU Emacs ), and various Unix utilities (Such As lsgrepawkmakeand ld).

Once the kernel and the compiler were finished, GNU was able to be used for program development. The main goal was to create many other applications to the Unix system. GNU was able to run Unix programs but was not identical to it. GNU embedded file queues, and file crashproof file system. The GNU Manifesto was written to gain support and participation from others for the project. Programmers were encouraged to take part in any aspect of the project. People could donate funds, computer parts, or even their own time to write code and programs for the project. [4]

The Emacs help system is the most widely used and widely used form of narrative. (Ch g runs the Emacs editor command describe-gnu-project.) It is the same detailed history as at their web site.

GNU Manifesto

Main article: GNU Manifesto

The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman to gain support and participation in the GNU Project. In the GNU Manifesto, Stallman listed four freedoms essential to software users: freedom to run a program for any purpose, freedom to study the mechanics of the program and modify it, freedom to redistribute copies, and freedom to improve and change use. [12] [13] To implement these freedoms, users needed full access to code. Stallman created the GNU General Public License (GPL), which allowed software and the future generations of code to come from free for public use.

Philosophy and activism

Main article: Free software movement

Although most of the GNU Project’s output is technical in nature, it was launched as a social, ethical, and political initiative. As well as producing and licensing, the GNU Project has published a number of writings, the majority of which were authored by Richard Stallman.

Free software

The GNU project uses software that is free for users to copy, edit, and distribute. It is free in the sense that users can change the software to fit individual needs. The way programmers get the free software depends on where they get it. The software could be provided to the programmer from friends or over the Internet.

Funding

Proceeds from associate members, purchases, and donations support the GNU project. [14]

Copyleft

Main article: Copyleft

Copyleft is what helps maintain free use of this software among other programmers. Copyleft gives the legal right to use, edit, and redistribute programs or programs. As a result, any user who obtains the software legally has the same freedoms as the rest of its users do.

The GNU Project and the FSF sometimes differentiate between “strong” and “weak” copyleft. “Weak” copyleft programs typically allow to distributors to link them together with non-free programs, while “strong” copyleft strictly forbids this practice. Most of the GNU Project’s output is released under a strong copyleft, but some is released under a weak copyleft or permissive free software license. Citation needed ]

Operating system development

GNU Hurd live CD
Main article: GNU

The first goal of the GNU project was to create a whole free-software operating system. By 1992, the GNU project had completed all of the major operating system utilities, but had not completed their proposed operating system kernel, GNU Hurd . With the release of the Linux kernel , started independently by Linus Torvalds in 1991, and released under the GPL with version 0.12 in 1992, for the first time it was possible to run an operating system completely free of software. Though the Linux kernel is not part of the GNU project, it was developed using GCC and other GNU programming tools and was released as free software under the GNU General Public License . [15]

GNU / Linux

Today has stable version (or variant) of GNU can be run by the GNU-combining packages with the Linux kernel , making a functional Unix-like system. The GNU project calls this GNU / Linux, and the defining features are the combination of:

  • GNU packages [16] [17] (except for GNU Hurd)
    The GNU packages Consist of Numerous operating system tools and utilities ( shell , coreutils , compilers, libraries, etc.) [16] [17] comprenant un library implementation of all of The POSIX System Application Program Interface (POSIX.1). [18] [19] The GCC compiler can generate machine-code for a wide variety of computer-architectures. [20]
  • Linux kernel – this implements program scheduling, multitasking, device drivers, memory management, etc. And allows the system to run on a wide variety of computer-architectures . [21] Linus Torvalds released the Linux kernel under the GNU General Public License in 1992; [22] It is however not a part of the GNU project. [23] [24] [25] [26]
  • Non-GNU programs – various free software packages which are not a part of the GNU Project but are released under the GNU General Public License or another FSF-approved Free Software License .

Within the GNU project, the GNU project is a project that will enable the GNU project to develop and implement the GNU project. The skill level ranges from project to project.

The packaging of GNU tools, together with the Linux kernel and other programs, is usually called Linux distro. The GNU Project in the GNU / Linux Linux kernel “GNU / Linux”, and asks others to do the same, [27] resulting in the GNU / Linux naming controversy .

Today most Linux distros combines GNU packages with a Linux kernel which contains proprietary binary blobs and a number of proprietary programs.

GNU Free System Distribution Guidelines

The GNU Free System Distribution System (GNU FSDG) is a system for distributing and distributing its distributions. Qualify.

GNU / Linux-free kernel is a free Linux kernel that allows you to create, modify, . [28] [29] [30] distributions-have adopté That includes the GNU fsdg Dragora GNU / Linux-libre , gNewSense , Parabola GNU / Linux-libre , Trisquel GNU / Linux , Ututo , and A Few others. [31]

The Fedora Project distribution distribution was used as a basis for the FSDG. [32]

Strategic projects

See also: Free Software Foundation

From the mid-1990s onward, with many companies investing in free software development, the Free Software Foundation redirects its funds to the legal and political support of free software development. Software development from the point That is Focused on Maintaining Existing projects, and starting new projects Only When There Was an acute threat to the free software community . One of the most notable projects of the GNU Project is the GNU Compiler Collection , whose components have been adopted as standard Unix-like systems.

GNOME

The GNOME desktop Was lancé efforts by the GNU Project Because Reviews another desktop system, KDE , Was Becoming popular goal required users to install Qt , qui Was Then proprietary software . KDE and Qt, the GNU Project simultaneously launched two projects. One was the Harmony toolkit . Had this project been successful, the perceived problem with the KDE would have been solved. The second project was GNOME, which tackled the same issue from a different angle. KDE, which has no dependencies on proprietary software. The Harmony project did not make much progress, but GNOME developed very well. Eventually, the proprietary component that KDE depended on ( Qt ) was released as free software. [33]

GNU Enterprise

GNU Enterprise ( GNUe ) is a meta-project started in 1996, [34] and can be considered as a sub-project of the GNU Project. GNU’s goal is to create free “enterprise-class data-aware applications” ( enterprise resource planners etc.). GNU is designed to collect software for the GNU system in a single location.

Recognition

In 2001, the GNU Project received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award for “the ubiquity, breadth, and quality of its freely available redistributable and modifiable software, which has enabled a generation of research and commercial development.” [35]

See also

  • Free software portal
  • Free Software Foundation
  • GNU Free Documentation License
  • List of GNU packages
  • 9965 GNU

References

  1. Jump up^ “A Bold GNU Head” . Retrieved November 30, 2014 . We thank Aurelio A. Heckert for donating this graphic to us.
  2. Jump up^ “A GNU Head” . Retrieved November 30, 2014 . This graphic was drawn by Etienne Suvasa
  3. Jump up^ “What is GNU?” . The GNU Operating System . Free Software Foundation . September 4, 2009 . Retrieved 2009-10-09 . The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix!”; It is pronounced g-noo , as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b “The GNU Manifesto” . Free Software Foundation . July 21, 2007 . Retrieved 2015-10-08 .
  5. Jump up^ Torvalds, Linus Benedict (August 1991). “Comp.os.minix” . Retrieved 2009-09-06 .
  6. Jump up^ z-archive of Linux version 0.99 , kernel.org, December 1992
  7. Jump up^ Andrew D. Balsa; Coauthors . “The linux-kernel mailing list FAQ” . The Linux Kernel Archives . Kernel.org. Archived fromthe original on 2012-10-01 . Retrieved 2013-06-13 . Linux, or the expression “Linux kernel” to designate the kernel, and GNU / Linux to designate the entire body of GNU / GPL … GNU / Linux in general is a free and open source networking application for Linux.
  8. Jump up^ Mark Shuttleworth (February 14, 2014). “Losing graciously” . Archived from the original on 22 March 2014 . Retrieved 27 April 2014 . GNU / Linux on both fronts
  9. Jump up^ Richard Stallman. “New Unix implementation” .
  10. Jump up^ Wardrip-Fruin, Noah; And Nick Montfort. “The GNU Manifesto.” The NewMediaReader. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT, 2003. pp.545-550.
  11. Jump up^ “GNU’s Bulletin, Vol.1 # 3” . Gnu.org . June 1987.
  12. Jump up^ Stallman, Richard (March 1985). “The GNU Manifesto – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF)” . Gnu.org . GNU Project . Retrieved 2011-10-18 .
  13. Jump up^ Weber, S. (2004). The Success of Open Source. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  14. Jump up^ Helping the GNU Project and the Free Software Movement – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation. gnu.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  15. Jump up^ Linus Benedict Torvalds (August 26, 1991). “What would you like to see most in minix?” . comp.os.minix.
  16. ^ Jump up to:b “All GNU packages” . Gnu.org .
  17. ^ Jump up to:b GNU @ Free Software Directory (fsf.org)
  18. Jump up^ POSIX – The GNU C Library
  19. Jump up^ GNU C Library # A temporary fork
  20. Jump up^ GCC Architectures
  21. Jump up^ The Linux Kernel Archives
  22. Jump up^ Release Notes for Linux v0.12
  23. Jump up^ Should the GNU / name convention be applied to all programs that are GPL’ed? GNU / Linux FAQ by Richard Stallman
  24. Jump up^ Why do you write “GNU / Linux” instead of “GNU Linux”? GNU / Linux FAQ by Richard Stallman
  25. Jump up^ Is not it wrong for us to label Linus Torvalds’ work as GNU?GNU / Linux FAQ by Richard Stallman
  26. Jump up^ Does Linus Torvalds agree that Linux is just the kernel? GNU / Linux FAQ by Richard Stallman
  27. Jump up^ Why do you call it GNU / Linux and not Linux?
  28. Jump up^ “Guidelines for Free System Distributions” . Gnu.org .
  29. Jump up^ “Avoiding Ruinous Compromises” . Gnu.org .
  30. Jump up^ “Explaining Why We Do not Endorse Other Systems” . Gnu.org .
  31. Jump up^ “List of Free GNU / Linux Distributions – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation” . Gnu.org . Retrieved 2014-08-18 .
  32. Jump up^ “Free System Distribution Guidelines (GNU FSDG) – GNU Project” . Gnu.org . Publisher . Retrieved 2014-06-07 . We would like to thank the Fedora Project for their help in focusing these policies, and allowing them to use their own distribution.
  33. Jump up^ Richard Stallman (September 5, 2000). “Stallman on Qt, the GPL, KDE, and GNOME” . Linux Today . Retrieved 2005-09-09 .
  34. Jump up^ Community History
  35. Jump up^ “USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award (” The Flame “)” . USENIX . Retrieved 2007-12-05 .

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