Free content , free content , or free information , is any kind of functional work, work of art , or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work .

Definition

free cultural work (free content) est, selon the Definition of free cultural works , One That Has No significant legal restrictions on people’s freedom to:

  • Use the content and benefit from using it,
  • Study the content and apply what is learned,
  • Make and distribute copies of the content,
  • Change and improve the content and distribute these derivative works. [1] [2]

Free happy encompasses all works in the public domain and aussi Those copyrighted works Whose licenses honor and uphold the Freedoms Above MENTIONED. Because the Berne Convention in MOST countries by default grants copyright holders monopolistic control over Their creations, content copyright must be Explicitly Declared free, usually by the referencing or inclusion of licensing statements from dans le work.

Although there are a lot of different definitions in regular everyday use, the content is very similar, if not identical, to open content . An analogy is the use of the rival terms free software and open source , which describes ideological differences rather than legal ones. [3] [4] [5] For instance, the Open Knowledge Foundation ‘s Open Definition Describes “open” as Synonymous to the definition of free in the ‘Definition of Free Cultural Works “(as aussi in the Open Source Definition and Free Software Definition ). [6] For Such free / open content Both movements recommend le même three Creative Commons licenses , the CC BY , CC BY-SA , and CC0 . [7] [8] [9] [10]

Legal matters

Copyright

Copyright is a legal concept, which gives the author or creator of a work legal control over the duplication and public performance of his or her work. In many jurisdictions, this is limited by a time period after which the works then enter the public domain . Copyright laws are a balance between the rights of creators of intellectual and artistic works and the rights of others to build upon those works. During the period of copyright the author’s work may only be copied, modified, or publicly performed with the consent of the author, unless the use is a fair use . Traditional copyright control limits the use of the author to those who pay royalties to the author for the use of the authors content, or limit their use to fair use. Secondly it limits the use of the content of which author can not be found. [11] Finally it has Creates Perceived barrier entre authors by limiting derivative works, Such As mashups and collaborative happy [12]

Public domain

The public domain is a Range of creative works Whose copyright has expired, or never Was Established; as well as ideas and facts [nb 1] qui are ineligible for copyright. A public domain is a work that has been published by the Government of Canada. As such any person may manipulate, distribute, or otherwise utilize the work, without legal ramifications. A work in the public domain or release under a permissive license may be referred to as ” copycenter “. [13]

Copyleft

Copyleft is a play on the word copyright and describes the practice of using copyright law to remove restrictions on distributing copies and modified versions of a work. [14] The aim of copyleft is to use the legal framework of copyright to enable non-author parts to be able to reuse and in many licensing schemes, modify content that is created by an author. Unlike in the public domain, the author still maintains copyright over the material, however the author has granted a non-exclusive license to any person to distribute, and often modify the work. Copyleft licenses require that any derivative works be distributed under the same terms, and that the original copyright notices be maintained. A symbol commonly associated with copyleft is a reversal of the copyright symbol , facing the other way; The opening of the C points left rather than right. Unlike the copyright symbol, the copyleft symbol does not have a codified meaning. [15]

Usage

Projects that provide free content exist in several areas of interest, such as software, academic literature, general literature, music, images, video, and engineering . Technology has reduced the cost of publication and reduced the entry barrier sufficiently to allow the production of widely disseminated materials by individuals or small groups. Projects to provide free literature and multimedia content have been increasingly prominent to the ease of dissemination of materials that is associated with the development of computer technology. Such dissemination may have been too costly prior to these technological developments.

Media

In media, which includes textual, audio, and visual content, free licensing schemes such as some of the licensed by Creative Commons licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlikeLicense. Not all of the Creative Commons are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. Since February 2008, Creative Commons licenses which are free to carry a badge indicating that they are “approved for free cultural works”. [16] repositories exist qui Exclusively feature free material Provide glad Such As photographs, clip art , music, [17] and literature ,. [18] While extensive reuse is not legal, it is usually not sensitive because of the duplicate content problem. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search While the vast majority of content on Wikipedia is free, some copyrighted material is hosted under Fair-use criteria .

Software

Free and open source software , qui est Often Referred to as open source software and free software , is a maturing technology with major companies Utilizing free software to Provide Both services and technology to end users and technical Both Consumers. The ease of dissemination has allowed for increased modularity, which allows to simplify collaboration. Open source development models have been classified as having a similar peer-recognition and collaborative benefit. [19] Given sufficient interest in a software component, By using peer-to-peer distribution methods, distribution costs of software may be reduced, removing the burden of infrastructure maintenance from developers. As distribution resources are simultaneously provided by consumers, these software distribution models are scalable, that is the method is feasible regardless of the number of consumers. In some cases, peer-to-peer technology as a method of dissemination. [20] In general, project hosting and code distribution is not a problem for the most of free projects as a number of providers offer them these services free. As distribution resources are simultaneously provided by consumers, these software distribution models are scalable, that is the method is feasible regardless of the number of consumers. In some cases, peer-to-peer technology as a method of dissemination. [20] In general, project hosting and code distribution is not a problem for the most of free projects as a number of providers offer them these services free. As distribution resources are simultaneously provided by consumers, these software distribution models are scalable, that is the method is feasible regardless of the number of consumers. In some cases, peer-to-peer technology as a method of dissemination. [20] In general, project hosting and code distribution is not a problem for the most of free projects as a number of providers offer them these services free.

Engineering and technology

Free Content New Content Open Access Content Subscribed Content Free Trial Content In this paper, we present the results of the study of the relationship between the development and the development of new technologies. Open design principles can be applied in engineering and technological applications, with projects in mobile telephony , small-scale manufacturing, [21] the automotive industry, [22] [23] and Even agricultural areas. [24] Such technologies have distributed manufacturing can allow computer-aided manufacturing and computer-aided design technology to be reliable to Develop small-scale manufacture of components for the development of new, or repair of existing, devices.

Academia

In academic work, the majority of works are not free, although the percentage of works is rapidly growing. Open access Refers to online research outputs That are free of all restrictions on access (eg access tolls) and free of Many restrictions on use (eg some copyright and licensing restrictions). [25] Authors may see how to expanding the audience to a greater extent. [26] [27] [28] Open access publishers Such As PLOS and Biomed Central Provide capacity for review and publishing of free works; Though such publications are currently more common in science than humanities. Various funding institutions and research bodies governing-have mandated That Must Produce academics Their works to be open-access, in order to Qualify for funding, Such As the National Institutes of Health , RCUK (effective 2016) and the US (effective 2020). [29] [30] [31] [32] At an institution level some universities, such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted open access publishing by default by introducing their own mandates. [33] Some mandates may allow publishers to post and publish researchers for open access publishing. [34] [35] Open gladpublication has-been seen as a method of Reducing costs associated with information retrieval in research, as universities Typically pay to subscribe for access to content That Is published through traditional means clustering [10] [36] [37] Whilst improving the quality of life of the population. [10] Subscriptions for non-free content journals may be expensive for universities to purchase, though the article is written and peer-reviewed. This has led to disputes between publishers and some universities over subscription costs, Such as the University of California and the Nature Publishing Group. [38] [39] For teaching purposes, some universities, including MIT, provide freely available course content, such as reading notes, video resources and tutorials. This content is distributed via Internet resources to the general public. Publication of such resources may be either by a formal institution-wide program, [40] or alternatively via informal content provided by individual academic departments or departments. This content is distributed via Internet resources to the general public. Publication of such resources may be either by a formal institution-wide program, [40] or alternatively via informal content provided by individual academic departments or departments. This content is distributed via Internet resources to the general public. Publication of such resources may be either by a formal institution-wide program, [40] or alternatively via informal content provided by individual academic departments or departments.

Legislation

Any Country Has Its own law and legal system, sustained by ict legislation has set of law-papers – Document Containing statutory obligation rules , usually law and created by legislatures . In a democratic country , each law-document is published as open media content; But the licensee shall not be deemed to be a licensee or licensee . Only FEW countries-have explicit licensing icts in-law documents, as the UK’s Open Government License (a CC-BY -compatible license). In the other countries, The implied license of its own rules (general laws and rules about copyright in government works). The automatic protection provided by the Berne Convention does not apply to law-documents: Article 2.4. It is also possible to “inherit” the license from context. The set of country-law documents is made available through national repositories. Examples of law-document open repositories: LexML Brazil , Legislation.gov.uk , N-Lex of EU countries . In general a law-document is offered in more than one (official) official version, by the government gazette . So,

See also

  • Content (media)
  • Definition of Free Cultural Works
  • Free and open source software
  • Free culture movement
  • Free software movement
  • Freedom of information
  • Free knowledge
  • Open Content Alliance
  • Open publishing
  • Open source hardware
  • Permissive free software license
  • Project Gutenberg

Notes

  1. Jump up^ The copyright status of uncreative aggregates of basic data may differ by region, for the USA see Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service , forAustralia, Telstra v Desktop Marketing Systems

References

  1. Jump up^ Erik Möller, et al. (2008). “Definition of Free Cultural Works” . 1.1. Freedomdefined.org . Retrieved 2015-04-20 .
  2. Jump up^ Stallman, Richard (November 13, 2008). “Free Software and Free Manuals” . Free Software Foundation . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  3. Jump up^ Stallman, Richard . “Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software” . Free Software Foundation .
  4. Jump up^ Kelty, Christpher M. (2008). “The Cultural Significance of Free Software – Two Bits” (PDF) . Duke University press – durham and london. p. 99. Prior to 1998, the Free Software Foundation (and the watchful, micromanaging eye of Stallman), or as a lawyer, or university-research projects, processes, licenses, and ideologies that had A variety of names: sourceware, freeware, shareware, open software, public domain software, and so on. The term Open Source, by contrast, sought to encompass them all in one movement.
  5. Jump up^ “Goodbye,” free software “, hello,” open source ” ” . Catb.org. Retrieved 2012-10-25 .
  6. Jump up^ Open Definition 2.1on opendefinition.org“Definitions and Definition of Definition and Definition and Definition and Definition of Definition and Definition Free Cultural Works. “
  7. Jump up^ licenseson opendefinition.com
  8. Jump up^ Creative Commons 4.0 BY and BY-SA licenses approved complying with the Open Definitionby Timothy Vollmer is creativecommons.org (December 27th, 2013)
  9. Jump up^ Open Definition 2.0 releasedby Timothy Vollmer on creativecommons.org (October 7th, 2014)
  10. ^ Jump to:c “Costs and business models in scientific research publishing: A report commissioned by the Wellcome Trust”(PDF) . Retrieved May 23, 2009 .
  11. Jump up^ “The Importance of Orphan Works Legislation” .
  12. Jump up^ Ben Depoorter; Francesco Parisi (2002). “Fair use and copyright protection: a price theory explanation” . International Review of Law and Economics . 21 (4): 453. doi : 10.1016 / S0144-8188 # 01) 00071-0 .
  13. Jump up^ Raymond, Eric S. “Copycenter” . The Jargon File . Retrieved August 9, 2008 .
  14. Jump up^ Dusollier, S (2003). “Open source and copyleft. Authorship reconsidered?”. Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts. 26 (296).
  15. Jump up^ Hall, G. Brent (2008). Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling . Springer. p. 29. ISBN  3-540-74830-X . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  16. Jump up^ Linksvayer, Mike (February 20, 2008). “Approved for Free Cultural Works” . Creative Commons . Retrieved March 22,2009 .
  17. Jump up^ “iRate Radio” . SourceForge.net . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  18. Jump up^ “Gutenberg: No Cost or Freedom?” . Project Gutenberg . April 23, 2007 . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  19. Jump up^ Mustonen, Mikko. “Copyleft – the economics of Linux and other open source software” (PDF) . Discussion Paper No. 493. Department of Economics, University of Helsinki . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  20. Jump up^ Pawlak, Michel; Bryce, Ciarán; Laurier, Stéphane (May 29, 2008). “The Practice of Free and Open Source Software Processes” (PDF) . Research report . Inria-00274193, version 2. National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control (INRIA). N ° 6519 (April 2008). ISSN  0249-6399 . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  21. Jump up^ Hendry, Andrew (March 4, 2008). “RepRap: An open-source 3D printer for the masses” . Computerworld Australia . The Industry Standard . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  22. Jump up^ Honsig, Markus (January 25, 2006). “The most open of all cars” . Technology Review (in German). Heinz Heise . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  23. Jump up^ “Australian drive for green commuter cars” . The Sydney Morning Herald . Sydney. 14 June 2010 . Retrieved 5 June 2015 .
  24. Jump up^ Stewart, Jr., C. Neal (December 2005). “Open-source Agriculture” (PDF) . ISB News Report . Information Systems for Biotechnology (ISB) . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  25. Jump up^ Suber, Peter. “Open Access Overview”. Earlham.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
  26. Jump up^ Alma Swan; Sheridan Brown (May 2005). “Open access self-archiving: An author study” (PDF) . Key Perspectives Limited.
  27. Jump up^ Andrew, Theo (October 30, 2003). “Trends in Self-Posting of Research Material Online by Academic Staff” . Ariadne . UKOLN(37). ISSN  1361-3200 . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  28. Jump up^ Key Perspectives. “JISC / OSI Journal Authors Survey Report”(PDF) . Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  29. Jump up^ Haslam, Maryanne. “NHMRC Partnership Projects – Funding Policy” (PDF) . National Health and Medical Research Council(NHMRC). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, 2009 . Retrieved March 22, 2009 .
  30. Jump up^ “Policy on Enhancing Public Access to Archived Publications Resulting from NIH Funded Research” . Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  31. Jump up^ “Open access – RCUK Policy and revised guidance” .
  32. Jump up^ “Outcome of Proceedings, 9526/16 RECH 208 TELECOM 100, The Transition to the Open Science System” .
  33. Jump up^ “MIT faculty open access to their scholarly articles” . MIT news. 20 March 2009.
  34. Jump up^ “Policy of the Society for General Microbiology towards author-archiving on PubMed Central and institutional and other repositories” . Retrieved April 10, 2009 .
  35. Jump up^ “OnlineOpen” . Retrieved April 10, 2009 .
  36. Jump up^ Mayor, Susan (April 19, 2003). “Libraries face higher costs for academic journals” . BMJ : British Medical Journal . BMJ Group. 326 (7394): 840. PMC  1125769  .
  37. Jump up^ “AMS Journal price survey” . Retrieved May 23, 2009 .
  38. Jump up^ “Response from the University of California to the Public Statement of Nature Publishing Group” (PDF) . June 10, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2010 . Retrieved September 13, 2015 .
  39. Jump up^ Hawkes, Nigel (November 10, 2003). “Boycott ‘greedy’ journal publishers, say scientists” . The Times . London. Archived fromthe original on April 29, 2011 . Retrieved September 13, 2015 .
  40. Jump up^ “About OpenCourseWare” . Retrieved April 10, 2009 .

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