Free Beer , originally known as Vores øl – An open source beer ( Danish for: Beer ), is the first brand of beer with an ” open ” / “free” brand and recipe .  The recipe and trademark Elements are published under the Creative Commons CC BY-SA license . 
The beer Was created in 2004 by students at the IT University in Copenhagen together with collective artist Superflex , to Illustrate how concepts of the FOSS movement might be applied outside the digital world. The “Free Beer” concept illustrates the connection aussi entre le long tradition of freely sharing cooking recipes with the FOSSmovement, qui suit les tries to sharing this tradition aussi for the “recipes” of software, the source code . The “Free beer” concept received an overall positive reception from international press and media for the political message,
In December 2004 a group of IT University of Copenhagen students together with Superflex brewed a 100-liter batch of a dark heavy beer in their school’s cafeteria .  The group Labeled the beer Vores øl ( Danish for: Our Beer ) after-to 1994 Carlsberg beer advertisement slogan.  A website Was created to Promote the project and the beer’s recipe and label designs Were published under an open source Creative Commons license , SPECIFICALLY the CC-BY-SA 2.5 license.  While unlike software cooking recipes aren ‘ T copyrightable the share-alike / copyleft licensing approach is legally questionable and untested in short.  After the publication the project received an overall positive reception from international press and media for the political message.    
Concept extension “Free Beer”
The developer of the beer stated that the beer was a medium for the message of “dogmatic notions of copyright and intellectual property that are dominating our culture” , and admitted that the group had only limited experience in beer production and was not Made up of beer gurus. The addition of the non-traditional beer ingredient Guarana Was aussi Partly inspired by a politically Previously Initiated in 2003 Superflex project, “Guarana Power”,  qui focussed on the carrier of Brazilian guarana farmers with Fair Trade .
After the first “Vors Øl” brewing of the open-source beer concept, Superflex continued to develop the concept under the name “Free Beer”. A new colorful, unusual “Free Beer” artwork should create associations with the “60’s [artistic] liberation” and underline the freedom aspect of the concept.  The later name “Free Beer” is a play on Richard Stallman ‘s common remark That free software is ” free as in speech, not free as in beer “,  Who suggéré aussi the establishment of ” Free Software beer “Instead of an” open source beer “. 
While the first “Vores øl” recipe draw some technical criticism, the recipe was continuously updated and identified shortcomings got fixed. Originally, the homebrewingcommunity complains the quality of the process and ingredient description.  Remarks Were That It Was not stated how much water to use in the mash , what kind of yeastWas to be used, the style of beer being white Produced (other than being white dark and heavy), whether or not Any hops Were being white Added for aroma, fermentationtemperature, or how the beer was supposed to taste. Making reference to the technical problems of a software program (” source code ” It was mentioned that if this recipe were source code, it would not compile .  Because of the underlying theme of the group’s message, the correction and development of this recipe is actively encouraged (in software terminology ” bug fixing and patches “).
Due to the availability of the recipe and the Free Beer brewings Many of breweries and Individuals worldwide over the course of years, the recipe was updated Several times. Later Major Free Beer recipe iterations (v3.0 and 4.0) Were aussi Developed in cooperation with a local Danish and Experienced brewery , Skands in Brøndby .   As previous recipe shortcomings were corrected, for instance the amount of sugar was decreased by 90%, the quality of the beer.  The recipe’s version qui atteint HAS now 4.1 , illustrates the community’s collaborative continuous improvement progress, made feasible by the “open source” nature of Free Beer. 
|Version||Codename||Dated||Brewery / Comments|
|FREE BEER version 4.1||August 25, 2010||Brewery in Huntington Beach, California|
|FREE BEER version 4.1||“Artspace”||October 2008||Steam Brewing Company in Newton , Auckland , New Zealand |
|FREE BEER version 4.0||“Skands”||September 2008||Brewed at Skands Microbrewery in Brøndby , Denmark|
|FREE BEER version 3.5||“Hops & Barley”||March 2008||By the Hops & Barley microbrewery Berlin , Germany |
|FREE BEER versão 3.4||“Germania”||November 2007||Brewer: Arnaldo Ribero, Germania brewery in Sao Paulo , Brasil |
|FREE BEER version 3.3||” Linghzi “||November 2007||Brewed in collaboration with Everything Mushroom, Knoxville, Tennessee|
|FREE BEER version 3.2||“St Austell”||July 2007||Brewery at St Austell Brewery in Cornwall, England .|
|FREE BEER version 3.0||“Skands”||June 2006||Brewed at Skands Microbrewery in Brøndby , Denmark  (and more  )|
|FREE BEER version 2.1||“Apollo”||August 2006||Brewed at the Apollo Microbrewery in Copenhagen |
|FREE BEER version 2.0||“Apollo”||2005||Brewed at the Apollo Microbrewery in Copenhagen.|
|FREE BEER version 1.5||“Samvirke”||?||Suited for home-brewing|
|FREE BEER version 1.1||FREE BEER||May 20, 2005||First time served under the name “Free Beer” on the Volksbühne Berlin  |
|FREE BEER version 1.0||“Vors Øl”||December 2004 ||Brewed by students at the IT university in Copenhagen together with Superflex|
Under its free license, this free beer encourages others to tweak the recipe and redistribute it. Commercial or amateur brewers are able to reuse the recipe. Known derivatives include:
- Switzerland / Lausanne : The Kiss of the Princess , in 2008.  
- France / Schiltigheim : Display free , specially brewed for the 2011 edition of the Libre Software Meeting ( free software meeting ) in Strasbourg .  
Others Took The political idea of an “open / free beer” (not the “Beer Free” label and recipe) ouvert Their Own beer recipes and / or artwork, Often under free licenses: 
- United States / Frederick : Flying Dog Brewery created in July 2007 an open source beer called “Collaborator Doppelbock ” (while without specified license).   
- Switzerland / Zürich : In 2008, project 21’s “FreeBeer” brewed by “Wädi-Brau-Huus” in Wädenswil  with own recipe and label.  
- Germany / Hannover : In March 2009 a free Red Beer was brewed for a local Wikipedia group meeting in context of CeBIT under the name “HannoverWikiRed”  
- Italy / Farigliano : In 2008 the Baladin craft-brewery released “open-source” beer and made the recipes public.  
- United States / Rockville : “Our Nation’s Attic – American Pale Ale” , beer recipe and label under CC0 , an American brewed by “Living Proof Brewery” in 2011. 
- New Zealand / Wellington Yeastie Boys ‘ Digital IPA was released in late 2011 and won in 2012 a Gold Award of the Brewers Guild of New Zealand.  The Digital IPA’s recipe has been widely available under a CC-SA-BY 3.0 license to enable brewers to brew their own versions.  
- Germany / Berlin : In 2012 Metamate created a mate infused beer named “Mier” under the CC-BY-NC-SA license,     qui Was served for instance on the “EHSM – the frontiers of open source and DIY “ is meeting DESY in 2014. The Commercial Production for the German market failed mostly due to the Reinheitsgebot qui forbids additions like Mate, while the recipe Mier Was adapté successfully for the Czech market. 
- United States / Washington, DC : In August 2012 a petition on ” We the people ” was successful  and the Barack Obama administration released the recipe of a White House brewed Honey Ale to the public ( public domain ). 
- Argentina / Paraná, Entre Ríos : During the Hackathon Litoral 2015, group of brewers created a fork of the Yeastie Boys Digital IPA with malt and hop of Argentina, recipe and artwork Were released under CC. 
- Scotland / Ellon, Aberdeenshire : In February 2016 BrewDog ” open sourced ” its beer recipes to the public, making ’em a form of Free Beer.  
Reception and impact
Since its first presentation, the “Free Beer” concept was often reported by international printed and online media,     and also discussed in specialist books regarding copyright. 
The “Free Beer” project was also well received by the FOSS and open content movement, for instance by Richard Stallman ,  Cory Doctorow ,   and Lawrence Lessig .    It was presented and sold on several conferences and meetings, for instance the “Isummit 2008” and the RMLL 2011, 2012, and 2014 .   The FSCONS 2008 also resulted in a CC-BY-SA licensed Ebook with the “Free Beer” artwork and title.   Free Beer Was shown aussi in the context of Several art exhibitions and museums , for instance the Art Basel Miami Beach 2006, the Van Abbemuseum , Netherlands 2007 gold the Taipei Biennial 2010 (sponsored by TTL  ).  “Free Beer” was also used in the context of anti-copyright activities and movements, illustrating the advantage of open knowledge for the society. The Van Abbemuseum , Netherlands 2007 or the Taipei Biennial2010 (sponsored by TTL  ).  “Free Beer” was also used in the context of anti-copyright activities and movements, illustrating the advantage of open knowledge for the society. The Van Abbemuseum , Netherlands 2007 or the Taipei Biennial 2010 (sponsored by TTL  ).  “Free Beer” was also used in the context of anti-copyright activities and movements, illustrating the advantage of open knowledge for the society.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Program is taipeibiennial.org “Workshop:” FREE BEER factory “, Superflex Sep.7, Tue.1500-1700, Venue: GOOGLE OFFICE, TFAM, Superflex inaugurates Their work-for-TB10 with a free workshop. Learn to brew your own beer. “
- ^ Jump up to:a b Lessig, Lawrence (2008-08-04). “How much RMS has won”. Lessig.org . Retrieved 2015-07-08 .
Just returning from the iCommons Summit in Sapporo, Japan. The Free Beer project has a locally brewed version. But this ad caught my eye: “Free Beer” for “500 yen.” We’re now at the stage where (at least some) the RMS design of “free” As in free speech “perfectly natural.
- Jump up^ Danish students launch open source and shareware beer 30-12-2004on copcap.com (archived)
- ^ Jump up to:a b FAQ “How can a beer be” free “? The recipe and the FREE BEER brand is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License” is freebeer.org
- ^ Jump up to:a b c ‘Free’ Danish beer Makes a Splash is BBC News
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Pass Over a Frosty Mug of Home Brew Version 1.0 in The New York Times (2005)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c “Free Beer for Geeks” on Wired News by David Cohn
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Kopenhagen: Studenten brauen Open-Source-Bier in Spiegel Online (in German)
- Jump up^ Henrik Moltke’s flicker stream “Students at IT University, Copenhagen, Superflex and the Yoda of home brewing, Kjeld Erlandsen, making the first batch of Vores Øl, our predecessor of FREE BEER”(December 13, 2004)
- Jump up^ Vinderlisten – Arnold 1994″IdeéPrench Arnold, Produkt / titel: Vores Øl” Kollektivet “, Annoncør: Carlsberg Bryggerierne” (archived, Danish)
- Jump up^ Hancock, Terry (2008-08-29). “What if copyright did not apply to binary executables?” . Free Software Magazine . Retrieved 2016-01-25 .
In fact, it is very likely that a recipe, which is usually quite minimal in expression, will not be subject to copyright protection at all, simply because there is so little “expressive” content. Instead, the major content of a recipe is said to be “functional”: conveying only that which is strictly necessary to communicate the composition of the stew.
- Jump up^ Adrian Harewood (2005-07-21). “Danish offer a recipe for open source beer” . CBC Radio – As It Happens – Features . CBC Radio One . Archived from the original on 2008-04-23 . Retrieved 2015-06-26 .
- Jump up^ “Guarana Power”is superflex.net“In 2003 SUPERFLEX Initiated in conjunction with a guaraná farmers’ cooperative from Maués in the Brazilian Amazon in order to Produce the Power Guarana soft drink. The farmers-have Organized Themselves.”
- Jump up^ Koch, Rasmus (2007-01-01). “Free Beer” . Rasmus Koch Studio . Retrieved 2015-08-24 .
FREE BEER refers to information freedom, not economic freedom. […] Designing a visual program for an idea. Other models of interpretation had to be exercised. The resulting solution builds on a vivid and colorful reference to 60’s liberation. Practically speaking this means “free the colors”. No one color has the ability to rule or over set another. Only one spectral rule governs: NEVER USE ONE COLOR TWICE.
- Jump up^ The Free Software Definition – Free Software Foundationon FSF.org
- ^ Jump up to:a b Richard Stallman on free beer on superflex.net ” HM: Now, in the same email, you also suggest that we call the beer a free software beer RMS: Yes, I Founded the free software movement […] HM: – so if you could pretend that you were reviewing the idea of a free beer? RMS: I love the idea as long as I do not have to drink it “(2005)
- Jump up^ Free Beer That’s Free in SpeechonSlashdot
- Jump up^ If this recipe were code, it would not compile. You have to guess at the yeast type and boil times for the hops. By Vellmont onslashdot.com
- Jump up^ Photos of FREE BEER 3.0 at final output internshipis freebeer.org “Master brewer Birthe Skands 3.0 Describes as a” traditional, top fermented beer with a very high drinkability factor “(Friday, June 9, 2006)
- Jump up^ FREE BEER VERSION 4.0on freebeer.org (Thursday, October 8, 2009)
- Jump up^ “FREE BEER recipe” . Retrieved 2010-09-11 .
- Jump up^ “Free as in free speech” – LA Release for SUPERFLEX’s FREE BEERMonday, August 16, 2010
- Jump up^ If Value, Then Copyat artspace.org.nz
- Jump up^ FREE BEER macht sich schön fÃ¼r die re: publicaby Nicole (09 March 2008)
- Jump up^ Free Beeron emporiobiergarten.com.br
- Jump up^ http://www.bryggeriet-skands.dk/
- Jump up^ 2006 Status version 3.0
- Jump up^ Free Beer version 2.1 on the Apollo brewery in Copenhagen
- Jump up^ Superflexon arthurmag.com (May 2005)
- Jump up^ Wer will schon eine würdelose alte Frau? By Jens Balzer inBerliner Zeitung(in German, 24.05.2005)
- Jump up^ voresoel.dkoldest web entry (archived)
- Jump up^ Free beer and the kiss of the princess open source beers(in French)
- Jump up^ baiserdelaprincesse.com(in French)
- ^ Jump up to:a b “LSM HAS free beer as in speech” blog item
- Jump up^ Display Free beer recipe(in French)
- ^ Jump up to:a b Harris, Lissa (2007-09-01). “Free Beer – What’s not to love?”. BeerAdvocate magazine # 9 . Beeradvocate.com . Retrieved 2015-08-25 .
- Jump up^ open-source-beer-recipe-finalizedon opensourcebeerproject.com (archived)
- Jump up^ wild-dog-collaborator-doppelbock-labelon opensourcebeerproject.com (archived)
- Jump up^ project 21: recipe(German)
- Jump up^ FreeBeer.ch
- Jump up^ Ein Copyright-Trick machts möglich: Freibier für alleinTages-Anzeigeron 3.03.2008 (in German)
- Jump up^ CC-BY-SA recipe for HannoverWikiRed(archived, in German)
- Jump up^ HannoverWikiRed: Open-Source-Bier angestochenonHeise.de(09.03.2009, in German)
- Jump up^ Birra 2.0. Teo Musso and the open source Baladinin scattidigusto.it by Paolo Mazzola (Italian, October 2010)
- Jump up^ recipeson baladin.it
- Jump up^ Our Nation’s Attic, an American Pale Aleby Thomas Gideon on livingproofbrewcast.com (2011-08-13)
- Jump up^ “Yeastie Boys win gold for open source beer” . scoop.co.nz. 2012-08-21 . Retrieved 2015-07-24 .
Yeastie Boys win gold for open source beer
- ^ Jump up to:a b Brown, Casey (2012-08-31). “Beer brings people together: Obama, homebrewers, and online communities . “Opensource.com . Retrieved 2015-07-25 .
The Yeastie Boys Digital IPA has also been frequently talked about in conversations in the open source community over the past few days. To describe the beer, the Yeastie Boys’ website states, “Just as the term is all about zeroes and ones, the IPA concept is all about malts and hops.” This beer is a great place to be, but it’s a good place to be. They also link to different forms of social media so they can easily share their tweaked recipes.
- Jump up^ digital-ipa-recipeon yeastieboys.tumblr.com
- Jump up^ Mate-Bier aus Berlin: Das Spiel mit dem Kult, in Berliner Zeitung on 13. March 2012(in German)
- Jump up^ Spangenberg, Christoph (2012-12-31). “Prost: Bier mit Mate und Absinth: Da braut sich was zusammen” (in German). Der Tagesspiegel . Retrieved 2014-04-01 .
- Jump up^ Mier’s Licenseon mier.metamate.cc
- Jump up^ metamate.cc:MIER; Nicht nur MATE, nicht nur BIER! (In German)
- Jump up^ Mier – failure attempt to CC license as mass market consume goodoncccamp15by Fabricio do Canto (Aug 15, 2015)
- Jump up^ Ale to the Chief: White House Beer Recipeonwhitehouse.gov(1 September 2012)
- Jump up^ Cerveceros Artesanales de Entre Rios (2015-09-16). “Digital IPA Litoral” . Retrieved 2016-02-03 .
- Jump up^ BrewDog “open-source” its beer recipesare Scottish Business News Network (February 25, 2016)
- Jump up^ BrewDog’s open-source revolution is at the vanguard of postcapitalismby Paul Mason onThe Guardian(29 February 2016)
- Jump up^ Macmillan, Fiona (2007). “New Directions in Copyright Law, Volume 6” . Edward Elgar Publishing . pp. 69-70 . Retrieved 2015-08-25 .
- Jump up^ Danish hackers launch Free Beer 3.0, with guaranabyCory Doctorowonboingboing.net(Jun 9, 2006)
- Jump up^ Cory Doctorow with freebeeron flickr (2007)
- Jump up^ Lessig, Lawrence (September 2006). “Free, as in beer” . Wired . Retrieved 2009-03-18 .
In June, a Copenhagen artists’ collective called Superflex released version 3.0 of a new beer called – you guessed it – Free Beer. “Free beer?” You ask. “Think free,” Superflex members helpfully explained at the launch, “as in free software.”
- Jump up^ lessig & ccwfreebeerSMALL.jpgby Henrik Moltke
- Jump up^ Free Beeron RMLL 2012 (in French)
- Jump up^ FREE BEER book out now. Thursday, November 26, 2009
- Jump up^ Free Beeronfscons.org (2009)
- Jump up^ 2010 Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corp. 5000 Bottles of “Free Beer Taiwan” in Taipei Biennial 2010
- Jump up^ Danes Get Serious About CC-Free Beeron creativecommons.org
- Jump up^ FREE BEER at the Art Basel Miamiis freebeer.org