The open-source model is a decentralized development model that encourages open collaboration . [1] [2] A hand principle of open-source software development is peer generation , with products Such As source code, blueprints , and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software is a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as open-source technologies , [3] and open-source drug discovery. [4] [5]

Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or open-source license to a product design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. [6] [7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet . [8] The open-source software movement to clarify copyright , licensing , domain , and consumer issues.

Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community. Code is released under the terms of a software license . Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community.

Many wide formal institutions-have sprung up to supporting the development of the open-source movement, Including the Apache Software Foundation , supports community projects qui Such As the open source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP .

The Internet and the personal computer considerably. For instance, in the early years of automobile development a group of capital monopolists owned by the rights to a 2-cycle gasoline engine patent originally filed by George B. Selden . [9] By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force carers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit.

In 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent was virtually worthless and a new association (which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association ) was formed. [9] The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US manufacturers. [9] By the time the US entered World War II , 92 Ford patents and 515 patents from other companies were being shared among these manufacturers, without any exchange of money (or lawsuits). [9]

Early instances of the free sharing of source code include IBM ‘s source releases of ict operating systems and other programs in the 1950s and 1960s, and the SHARE user group FORMED That to Facilitate the exchange of software. [10] [11] Beginning in the 1960s, ARPANET researchers used an open ” Request for Comments ” (RFC) process to encourage feedback in early telecommunication network protocols. This led to the birth of the Internet in 1969.

The sharing of source code on the Internet has been relatively primitive, with software distributed via UUCP , Usenet , IRC , and Gopher . BSD , for example, was first widely distributed by posts to comp.os.linux on the Usenet, which is also where its development was discussed. Linux followed in this model.

Open source as a term

The term “open source” was first proposed by a group of people in the free software movement which was critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term “free software” and sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position . [12] In addition, the ambiguity of the term “free software” was seen as discouraging business adoption. [13] [14] The group included Christine Peterson , Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin , Jon Hall , Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond . Peterson suggested “open source” at a meeting [15] Held at Palo Alto, California , in reaction to Netscape ‘s announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator . Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal . Richard Stallman , the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. [15] [16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License . [17] S announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator . Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal . Richard Stallman , the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. [15] [16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License . [17] S announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator . Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal . Richard Stallman , the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. [15] [16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License . [17] Richard Stallman , the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. [15] [16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License . [17] Richard Stallman , the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. [15] [16] Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License . [17]

Raymond was especially active in the effort to popularize the new term. He made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February 1998. [18] Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in cooperation with Bruce Perens . [15]

Tim O’Reilly . The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 . Originally titled the “Freeware Summit” and later known as “Open Source Summit”, [19] the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall , Brian Behlendorf , Eric Allman , Guido van Rossum , Michael Tiemann , Paul Vixie , Jamie Zawinski and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, alternatives to the term “free software” were discussed. Tiemann argued for “sourceware” as a new term, While Raymond argued for “open source”. The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference the same evening. [19]

“Open source” has never managed to completely supersede the older term “free software”, giving rise to the combined term free and open source software (FOSS).

Economics

Some good economists agree that open-source is an information good [20] or “knowledge good” with original work involving a significant amount of time, money, and effort. The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost – this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product. Copyright creates a monopoly so the price charged to consumers can be higher than the marginal cost of production. This allows the author to recoup the cost of making the original work. Copyright thus creates access costs for consumers who value the work more than the marginal cost.

Being organized as a ” consumers’ cooperative “, open source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivatives by reducing the restrictions of copyright. Basic economic theory, which predicts the lower costs and leads to more frequent creation of derivative works. Organizations Such As Creative Commons host websites Where Individuals can file for alternative “licenses”, or levels of restriction for Their works. [21] These self-made protections free the general society of the costs of policing copyright infringement.

Others argue that since customers do not pay for their copies, creators are unable to recoup the initial cost of production and thus have little economic incentive to create in the first place. By this argument, consumers would lose out because some of the goods they would otherwise not be available. In practice, content producers may choose whether to adopt a proprietary license and. Some goods require qui wide water equivalent of professional research and development, Such As the pharmaceutical industry (qui Depends Largely is obvious , not copyright for intellectual property protection) are Almost Exclusively proprietary, ALTHOUGH increasingly sophisticated technology are being white Developed on open-source principles. [22]

There is evidence that open-source development creates enormous value. [23] For example, in the context of open-source hardware design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (eg RepRap 3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials. [24] The original sharer may receive feedback and potentially improvements on the original design from the peer production community.

Licensing alternatives

Alternative arrangements of the proprietary license model. Examples include: citation needed ]

  • Creation for its own sake – For example, Wikipedia editors add content for recreation. Artists have a drive to create. Both communities benefit from free starting material.
  • Voluntary after-the-fact donations – used by shareware , street performers , and public broadcasting in the United States. Citation needed ]
  • Patron – For example, open access publishing relies on institutional and government funding of research faculty, which also has a professional incentive to publish for reputation and career advancement. Works of the federal government are published in the public domain . Citation needed ]
  • Freemium – Give away a limited version for free and load for a premium version (potentially using a dual license ).
  • Give away the product and load something related – Charge for the support of open source enterprise software , give away music for concert admission purpose load. Citation needed ]
  • Give away work in order to gain market share – Used by artists, in corporate software to spoil a dominant competitor (for example in the browser wars and the Android operating system ). Citation needed ]
  • For own use – Businesses or individual software developers. They will then open the solution, and benefit from the improvements others make for their own needs. Communalizing the maintenance burden distributes the cost across more users; Free riders can also benefit without undermining the creation process.

Open source applications

Social and political views have been affected by the growth of the open source concept. Advocates in one field often support the expansion of open source in other fields. But Eric Raymond and other founders of the open-source movement have sometimes publicly argued against speculation about applications outside software, saying that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story may be less compelling. The broader impact of the open-source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remain to be seen.

The open-source movement HAS inspired Increased transparency and liberty in biotechnology research, for example by CAMBIA . [25] Even the research methodologies themselves can benefit from the application of open-source principles. [26] It has aussi Given rise to the Rapidly-expanding open source hardware movement.

Computer software

Open-source software is an open-source software that allows users to create, modify, and modify the source code without paying royalties or fees. [28] Open-source code can evolve through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as large companies. Some of the individual programmers who can open an open-source programs. Citation needed ] Examples of open-source software products are: [29]

Electronics

Open source hardware is a hardware whose initial specification, usually in a software format, is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees. Open-source hardware evolves through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual hardware / software developers, hobbyists, as well as very large companies. Examples of open-source hardware initiatives are:

  • Openmoko : a family of open-source mobile phones , including the hardware specification and the operating system .
  • OpenRISC : an open-source microprocessor family, with architecture specification licensed under GNU GPL and implementation under LGPL .
  • Sun Microsystems ‘ s OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor. Sun has released it under GPL. [30]
  • Arduino , a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers. [31]
  • GizmoSphere , an open-source development platform for the embedded design community; The site includes code downloads and hardware schematics along with free user guides, spec sheets and other documentation. [32]
  • Simputer , an open hardware handheld computer , designed in India for use in environments where computing devices are deemed inappropriate. [33]
  • LEON : A family of open-source microprocessors distributed in a library with peripheral IP cores , open SPARC V8 specification, implementation available under GNU GPL .
  • Tinkerforge : A system of open-source stackable microcontroller building blocks. C ++, C #, Object Pascal, Java, PHP, Python and Ruby over a USB or Wifi connection on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. All of the hardware is licensed under CERN OHL (CERN Open Hardware License).
  • Open motherboard, chassis, racks, battery cabinet, and other aspects of electrical and mechanical design. [34]
  • Lasersaur , an open-source laser cutter . [35]

Food and beverages

Some publishers of open-access journals-have argued That data from food science and gastronomy studies shoulds be freely available to aid reproducibility . [36] A number of people have published creative commons licensed recipe books. [37]

  • Open-source colas – cola soft drinks, similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi , whose recipe is open source and developed by volunteers. The taste is said to be comparable to that of the standard beverages. Most corporations producing beverages hold their formulas as closely guarded secrets. [38]
  • Free Beer (originally Vores Øl ) – is an open-source beer created by students at the IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex , an artist collective, to illustrate how open-source concepts could be applied outside the digital world. [39] [40] [41]
  • In 2002, the beer company Brewtopia in Australia started an open-source brewery and invited the general population to be involved in the development and ownership of the brewery, and to vote on the development of every aspect of its beer, Blowfly, and its road To market. In return for their feedback and input, individuals receive shares in the company, which is now publicly traded on a stock exchange in Australia. The company has always adhered to its open-source roots and is the only beer company in the world that allows the public to design, customize and develop its own beers online. [42]

Digital content

  • Open-content projects organized by the Wikimedia Foundation – Websites such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have embedded the open-content Creative Commons content licenses. These licenses were designed to adhere to principles similar to various open-source software development licenses. Many of these licenses are available for re-use, which source documents are made readily available to interested parties. Important sites of embracing open-source-like ideals are Project Gutenberg [43] and Wikisource , both of which have copyright has expired and are in the public domain ,
SketchUp’s open-source 3D Warehouse library
  • Open ICEcat is an Open Catalog for the IT, CE and Lighting sectors with product data-based on Open Content License agreement. The digital content is distributed in XML and URL formats.
  • Google SketchUp ‘s 3D Warehouse is open-source community design centered around the use of proprietary software year that’s free.
  • The University of Waterloo Stratford Campus invites students every year to use its three-storey Christie MicroTiles as a digital canvas for their creative work. [44]

Medicine

  • Pharmaceuticals – There-have-been Several Proposals for open-source pharmaceutical development, [45] [46] qui led to the establishment of the Tropical Disease Initiative [47] and the Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium. [48]
  • E. coli O104: H4 outbreak . Genomics – The term “open-source genomics” refers to the combination of rapid release of sequence data (especially raw reads) and crowdsourced analyzes from bioinformaticians around the world . [49]
  • OpenEMR – OpenEMR is an ONC-ATB Ambulatory EHR 2011-2012 certified electronic health records and medical practice management application. EHR programs. EHR programs. EHR programs. EHR programs. http://www.open-emr.org/

Science and engineering

Open access
  • Research – The Science Commons Was created as an alternative to the expensive year legal costs of sharing and reusing scientific works in journals etc. [50]
  • Research – The Open Source Science Project was created to increase the ability of researchers to participate in the research process by providing them access to microfunding – which, in turn, research. All data and methodology is published under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
  • Research – The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) [51] is a grid-connected photovoltaic testing system, qui Continuously monitors the output of a number of photovoltaic modules and correlates Their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings. The OSOTF is organized under open-source principles – All data and analysis is made available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public. [51] [52]
  • Engineering – Hyperloop , a form of high-speed transport proposed by entrepreneur Elon Musk , which he describes as “an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven by a number of linear electric motors.” [53]
  • Construction – WikiHouse is an open-source project for designing and building houses . [54] [55]
  • Energy research – The Open Energy Modeling Initiative promotes open-source models and open data in energy research and policy advice.

Robotics

Main article: Open-source robotics

An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, or source code are released under an open-source model.

Transport

  • Open Trip Planner – this code is growing rapidly, with adoption in Portland, New York, The Netherlands and Helsinki.
  • TravelSpirit – a superior level of ‘super-architecture’ Mobility as a Service ‘

Fashion

  • Eyewear – In June 2013, an open-source eyewear brand, Botho, has started trading under the UK based Open Optics Ltd company. [56]

Other

VIA OpenBook is an open-source hardware laptop reference design.
  • Open-source systems can be applied to technical areas such as digital communication protocols and data storage formats.
  • Open design – which involves open-source methodologies to the design of artifacts and systems in the physical world. It is very nascent but has huge potential. [57]
  • Open-source-appropriate technology (OSAT) refers to technologies that are designed in the same way as free and open-source software . [58] These technologies must be ” appropriate technology ” (AT) – meaning technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic aspects of the community it is intended for. An example of this application is the use of open-source 3D printers like the RepRap to manufacture appropriate technology. [59]
  • Teaching – which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction, organizational, and management challenges. An example of an open-source courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative (JEDI). [60] Other examples include Khan Academy and wikiversity . At the university level, the use of open-source-appropriate technology classroom projects has-been shown to be successful in forging the connection entre science / engineering and social benefit: [61] This approach Has the potential to use university students’ access to resources And testing equipment in further development of appropriate technology . Similarly OSAT has been used as a tool for improving service learning . [62] [63]
  • There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance) using the open-source model, but this is another case where the potential is enormous. ITIL is closed to open source. It uses the Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content is a small one by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds). Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms.
  • An open-source group emerged in 2012 that is attempting to design a firearm that can be downloaded from the internet and “printed” on a 3D Printer . [64] Calling itself Defense Distributed , the group wants to support “a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer”. [65]
  • Agrecol, a German NGO has developed an open-source license for seeds operating with copyeft and created OpenSourceSeeds as a respective service provider. Breeders that apply the license to their new invented material prevent it from the threat of privatization and help to establish a commons-based breeding sector as an alternative to the commercial sector. [66]

Society and culture

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The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve copyright and restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. The two main ways in qui intellectual property laws est devenu more restrictive in the 20th century Were extensions to the term of copyright (PARTICULARLY in the United States ) and penalties, Such As Those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), Placed on Attempts To circumvent anti-piracy technologies. [67]

Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners. Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a ” chilling effect ” among cultural practitioners. [68]

The idea of ​​an “open-source” culture runs parallel to ” Free Culture ,” but is substantively different. Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement , and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of open-source culture (OSC). Yet they offer a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing an intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in “the Good life”) and ends.

Such sites have ccMixter offer up free web space for anyone willing to license Their work under a Creative Commons license. The resulting cultural product is then available to anyone with an Internet connection. [69]Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have.

Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs , cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol ( TCP / IP ) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution.

Further information: Open-source software movement

Government

  • Open politics (sometimes Known As Open-source politics ) is a political process That uses internet technologies Such As blogs, email and polling to Provide for a rapid feedback mechanism entre political organisms and Their supporters. There is also an alternative design of the term. Open-source politics .
  • Open-source governance is similar to open-source politics.
  • The South Korean government wants to increase its use of free and open-source software, in order to reduce its dependence on proprietary software solutions. It makes it possible to choose between multiple operating systems and web browsers. Korea’s Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning is also preparing ten pilots on using open-source software distributions. [70]

Ethics

Open-source ethics is split into two strands:

  • Open-source ethics as an ethical school – Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether or not they can learn anything from an open-source approach. Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open-source ethics. [71]
  • Open-source ethics as a professional body of rules – This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the issues of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in Particular. [72]

Religion

Irish philosopher Richard Kearney HAS used the term “open source Hinduism” to Refer to the way historical figures as Mohandas Gandhi and Such Swami Vivekananda Worked upon this ancient tradition. [73]

Media

Open-source journalism formerly Referred to the technical standard of journalistic news gathering and fact checking, Reflecting open source intelligence has similar term used in military intelligence circles. Now, open-source journalism commonly refers to forms of innovative publishing of online journalism , rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the 25 December 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is Referred to as user created happy and listed Alongside more traditional open source projects Such As OpenSolaris and Linux .

Weblogs , or blogs, are an important platform for open-source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress , utilize open-source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes. Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture;

Messageboards are another platform for open-source culture. Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to. Sometimes moderators Who-have messageboards enforce community standards of etiquette Such As banning users Who are spammers . Other common posts in this article are available on the Internet. Some messageboards use phpBB , which is a free open-source package. Where are the latest news and articles on revolve around their authors, Messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly. Messageboards are a way to remove Intermediaries from everyday life-for instance, one INSTEAD of Relying Commercial and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas.

OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents, such as memos, reports, and books, spreadsheets , charts, and presentations. Organizations and Individuals That store Their data in an open Such size as OpenDocument AVOID being white locked into a single software vendor, leaving em free to switch software if Their current vendor goes out of business, raises Their prices, exchange Their software, gold exchange Their licensing Terms to something less favorable.

Open-source, open source, open source, open source, open-source, open-source, open-source, open-source, open-source, open-source, The production. The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the world’s first open movie, [74] created entirely using open-source technology .

An open-source documentary film has a production process. The open contributions of archival material footage , and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form, similar to crowdsourcing. By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development. The first open-source documentary film is the non-profit ” The American Revolution “, which went into development in 2006, and will examine the role played in the cultural, social and political changes from 1968 to 1974 WBCN-FM in Boston. [75] [76] [77] [78]The film is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit Collaborative Filmmakers. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. [79] Open-source filmmaker is a filmmaker who is a film-maker, but rather a filmmaker. It can also be referred to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’, ie a disparate group of contributors, at different times. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. [79] Open-source filmmaker is a filmmaker who is a film-maker, but rather a filmmaker. It can also be referred to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’, ie a disparate group of contributors, at different times. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. [79] Open-source filmmaker is a filmmaker who is a film-maker, but rather a filmmaker. It can also be referred to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’, ie a disparate group of contributors, at different times. [79] Open-source filmmaker is a filmmaker who is a film-maker, but rather a filmmaker. It can also be referred to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’, ie a disparate group of contributors, at different times. [79] Open-source filmmaker is a filmmaker who is a film-maker, but rather a filmmaker. It can also be referred to a method of film-making where the process of creation is ‘open’, ie a disparate group of contributors, at different times.

Open-IPTV is an IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show.

Education

Open Educational Resources logo

Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the “intellectual commons” (analogous to the Creative Commons ). Proponents of this view-have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University , OpenCourseWare project at MIT , Eugene Thacker ‘s section on “open-source DNA”, the “Open Source Cultural Database”, Salman Khan ‘s Khan Academy and Wikipedia as examples of Open source software.

Open-source curriculum and instructional resources are available free of charge, distributed and modified.

Another strand to the academic community is in the area of ​​research. Many funded research projects produce a part of their work. There is an increased interest in making the outputs of such projects available under open-source license. In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open-source software. JISC funds has aussi development department called Expired OSS Watch qui acts as an advisory department for Higher and further education institutions Wishing to use, and contribuer to open-source software Develop.

On 30 March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which included $ 2 billion over four years to fund the TAACCCT program , which is described as “the largest OER (open education resources) initiative in the uniquely focused On creating curricula in partnership with industry for credentials in vocational industry sectors like manufacturing, health, energy, transportation, and IT “. [80]

Innovation communities

The principle of sharing pre-dates the open-source movement; For example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open-source principles have always been part of the scientific community. The sociologist Robert K. Merton describes the four basic elements of the community-universalism (an international perspective), communalism (sharing information), disinterestedness, and organized skepticism. Accurately describe the scientific community today.

These principles are, in part, complemented by the law of the. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access-the idea that it should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public. There are currently many open access journals where the information is available online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access). The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available on the Internet.

The National Institutes of Health ( NIH Research). This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. The NIH’s move is an important one because it has a significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have been answered by the balancing of profit vs. Public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access.

Farmavita.Net is a community of pharmaceutical companies that have recently proposed a new business model of open-source pharmaceuticals. [81] The project is targeted to the development and sharing of know-how for the manufacture of essential and life-saving medicines. It is mainly devoted to the development of the national economy. It will be limited to generic (off-patent) medicines with established use. By the definition, medicinal product has a “well-established use” if it is used for at least 15 years, with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety. In that event, the expensive clinical test and trial results could be replaced by scientific literature.

Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor to the Franklin stove , bifocals , and the lightning rod to the public domain.

New NGO communities are starting to use open-source technology as a tool. One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members. [82]

Open innovation is also a new emerging concept which advocate putting R & D in a common pool. The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an open innovation network. [83]

Arts and recreation

Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices. [84]

In 2012, Russian music composer, scientist and Russian Pirate Party member Victor Argonov presented detailed raw files of his electronic opera “2032” [85] under free license CC-BY-NC 3.0 . This opera was originally composed and published in 2007 by Russian label MC Entertainment as a commercial product, but then the author changed its status to free. In his blog [2] he said that he has decided to open raw files (including wav, midi and other used formats) to SOPA and PIPA . Several Internet resources, [86] [87] [88] called “2032” the first open-source musical opera in history.

Other related movements

The following are examples of the open sources of the open source community. [89]

Open Education Consortium – an organization of various colleges that support open source and share some of their material online. This organization, headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology , was established in the exchange of open source educational materials. [90]

Wikipedia – user-generated online encyclopedia with sister projects in academic areas, Such As Wikiversity – a community dedicated to the establishment and exchange of learning materials [91] [ not in citation Given ]

Project Gutenberg – prior to the existence of Google Scholar Beta, This Was the first beg of electronic books and the very first free library project [91] [ not in citation Given ]

Synthetic Biology – Synthetic Biology is considered the feasibility of the open source movement. This new technology is important and exciting because it promises to enable cheap, lifesaving new drugs as well as help to yield biofuels that may help to solve our energy problem. Although synthetic biology has not yet come out of its “lab” stage, it has great potential to become industrialized in the near future. In order to develop their own brand of it. [92]

Ideologically related movements

The open access movement is a movement that is similar in ideology to the open source movement. [93] The Open Access Movement for Academic Materials [93]

The free cultural movement is a movement that has been carried out in collective freedom through freedom of expression, free public access to knowledge and information, full demonstration of creativity and innovation in various arenas and promotion of citizen liberties. [94] [ citation needed ]

Creative Commons License Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoVerprise Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License Creative CommonsLicense Creative Commons Attribution Creative Commons Attribution Creative Commons Attribution Creative Commons License . Creative Commons License Creative Commons License Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution Creative Commons Share Alike. [95] The Creative Commons license a slightly more lenient alternative to “all rights reserved” copyrights for those who do not wish to exclude the use of their material. [96]

The Zeitgeist Movement is international social year movement That advocates a transition into a sustainable “resource-based economy” based on cooperation in qui monetary incentives are Replaced by commons-based ones with everyone HAVING access to everything (from code to products) as in ” Open source everything “. [97] [98] While its activism and events are typically focused on media and education, TZM is a major supporter of open source projects. investment. [99]

P2P Foundation is an international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting peer practices in a very broad sense. Its objectives are to incorporate those of the open source movement, whose principles are integrated into a larger socio-economic model. [100]

See also

Lists

  • List of commercial open-source applications
  • List of open-source healthcare software
  • List of open-source software packages
  • List of open-source video games
  • List of trademarked open-source software
  • List of open-source Android applications

Terms based on open source

  • Open-source-appropriate technology
  • Open-source economics
  • Open Source Ecology
  • Open-source governance
  • Open source hardware
  • Open Source Initiative
  • Open-source license
  • Open-source political campaign
  • Open-source record label
  • Open-source religion
  • Open-source robotics
  • Open-source software
  • Open-source movement

Other

  • Open Source: Voices from the Open Source Revolution(book)
  • Business models for open-source software
  • Collaborative intelligence
  • Commons-based peer production
  • Commercial open-source applications
  • Community source
  • Digital freedom
  • Diseconomy of scale
  • Embrace, extend and extinguish
  • Free Beer
  • Free software
  • Gift economy
  • Glossary of legal terms in technology
  • Halloween Documents
  • Linux
  • Mass collaboration
  • Network effect
  • Open access (publishing)
  • Open content
  • Open data
  • Open design
  • Open format
  • Open implementation
  • Open innovation
  • OpenJDK
  • Open research
  • Open security
  • OpenSolaris
  • Open Source Ecology
  • Open Source Lab (book)
  • Comparison of open source and closed source
  • Open system (computing)
  • Open standard
  • OpenDWG
  • Openness
  • Peer production
  • Shared source
  • Sharing economy
  • Vendor lock-in
  • Web literacy (Open Practices)

References

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  48. Jump up^ “The Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium” . Openwetware.org. 2012-12-14 . Retrieved 2013-03-18 .
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  56. Jump up^ “Botho – The Open Source Eyewear Brand” . Www.botho.co.uk . Retrieved 2012-06-24 .
  57. Jump up^ “Open collaborative design” . AdCiv. 2010-07-29 . Retrieved 2012-10-25 .
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  96. Jump up^ “How to find Creative Commons images on Flickr” . New Media Rights . Retrieved 2011-10-20 .
  97. Jump up^ Dostaler, Kim (19 July 2012). “The Zeitgeist Movement: Getting to the Root of the Problem” . Retrieved 10 June 2015 .
  98. Jump up^ Dobson, Stuart (27 January 2013). “Forget the Class War, How to Win the Fight Against the Elite” . Retrieved 10 June 2015 .
  99. Jump up^ “Open Source Ecology – Zeitgeist movement” . Open Source Ecology .
  100. Jump up^ “P2P Foundation: About” . P2P Foundation . Retrieved 2015-02-15 .

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