Open-source software is widely used both as independent applications and as components in non-open-source applications. Many independent vendors (ISVs), value-added resellers (VARs), and hardware vendors ( OEMs or ODMs ) use open-source frameworks , modules, and libraries inside their proprietary, for-profit products and services. [1] From a customer perspective, the ability to use open technology under commercial terms and support is valuable. They are entitled to pay for the legal protection, “commercial-grade QA”,

Funding

Much unlike proprietary off-the-shelf software that comes with restrictive licenses, open-source software is freely distributed through the web and in physical media. Because creators can not require each user to pay a license fee to fund this way, a number of alternative development funding models have emerged.

An example of those funding models is when it comes to consulting projects for one or more customers who request it. These customers pay developers to have this software developed directly to their own needs and they could also directly direct the developers’ work. If both parties agree, the resulting software may then be publicly released with an open-source license. (Or independent consultants) can then charge for training, installation, technical support , or further customization.

There aussi exist stipends to supporting the development of open source software, Such As Google ‘s Summer of Code . [2]

Another approach to funding is to provide the software freely, but sell licenses to proprietary add-ons such as data libraries. For instance, an open-source CAD program may require parts which are sold on a subscription basis or flat-fee basis. Open-source software can aussi Promote the sale of Specialized hardware That It interoperates with, some example cases being white the Asterisk telephony software developed by PC-telephony hardware manufacturer Digium and the Robot Operating System (ROS) robotics platform by Willow Garage and Stanford AI Labs . Many open source software projects have begun as research projects within universities, as personal projects of students or professors, or as tools to aid scientific research.

Companies may employ employees to work on open-source projects that are useful to the company’s infrastructure: in this case, it is developed as a shared public utility. A local bug-fix or solution to a software problem, written by a developer either to a company’s request or to make his / her own job easier, can be released as an open-source contribution without costing the company anything. [3] A larger project, such as the Linux kernel.

A new funding approach for open-source projects is crowdfunding , organized over web platforms like Kickstarter , Indiegogo , or Bountysource . [4]

Challenges

Open-source software can be sold and used in general commercially . Also, commercial open-source applications have been a part of the software industry for some time. [1] [5] While commercialization or funding of open-source software projects is possible, it is considered challenging. [6]

Since Several open-source licenses stipulate That authors of derivative works must distribute em under open source year ( copyleft ) license, ISVs and VARs-have to Develop new legal and technical Mechanisms to foster goals shopping Their, [7] as Many traditional Mechanisms are Not directly applicable anymore.

Traditional business wisdom Suggests That a company’s methods, assets, and intellectual properties shoulds REMAIN concealed from market concurrents ( secret trade ) as long as possible, to maximize the profitable commercialization of a new product time. [8] Open-source software development minimizes the effectiveness of this tactic; development of the product is usually Performed in view of the public, Allowing gold projects competing clones to Incorporate new features or improvements as soon as the public code repository is updated, as permitted by open-source licenses most. Also in the computer hardware domain, a hardware producer who provides free and open software drivers reveals the knowledge about hardware implementation details to competitors,

Therefore, there is considerable debate about whether or not to make a sustainable business from an open-source strategy. In terms of a traditional software company, this is probably the wrong question to ask. Looking at the landscape of open source applications, many of the big ones are sponsored (and largely written) by system companies such as IBM who may not have an objective of software license revenues. Other software companies, such as Oracle and Google, have sponsored or delivered significant open-source code bases. These firms’ motivation tends to be more strategic, in the sense that they are trying to change the rules of a marketplace and reduce the influence of vendors such as Microsoft.

Approaches

A variety of open-source compatible business approaches have gained prominence in recent years according to which? ] ; Notable examples include dual licensing , software as a service , not-for-profit software , freemium, donation-based funding, and crowdfunding .

There are several types of business models for making profit using open-source software (OSS) or funding the creation. Below are the legal and commercial open source software licenses. [7] The acceptance of these approaches varies; Some of these approaches are recommended, others are considered controversial or even unethical by the open-source community. The Underlying objective of These business models is to harness the size and international scope of the open-source community (Typically more than an order of magnitude larger than what Would Be Achieved with closed-source models) for a sustainable business venture. Citation needed ] The vast majority of commercial open-source companies have a conversion ratio (as measured by the percentage of downloaders who buy something) well below 1%, so low-cost and highly-scalable marketing ‘Profitability. Citation needed ] Citation needed ] The vast majority of commercial open-source companies have a conversion ratio (as measured by the percentage of downloaders who buy something) well below 1%, so low-cost and highly-scalable marketing ‘Profitability. Citation needed ] Citation needed ] The vast majority of commercial open-source companies have a conversion ratio (as measured by the percentage of downloaders who buy something) well below 1%, so low-cost and highly-scalable marketing ‘Profitability. Citation needed ]

Dual-licensing

Main article: Multi-licensing

Dual licensing offers the software under an open-source license but also under proprietary license terms. The proprietary version can be used to finance the development of the open-source version. [9] Customers can be attracted to a no-cost and open-source edition, then be part of an up-sell to a commercial enterprise edition. Further, customers will learn of open source software in a company’s portfolio and offerings aim generate business in other proprietary products and solutions, commercial Including technical support contracts and services. A popular example is Oracle ‘ S MySQL database which is dual-licensed under a commercial proprietary license as also under the GPLv2 . [10] Another example is the Sleepycat License . Flask developer Armin Ronacher stated that the AGPLv 3 was a “terrible success” as well as a MongoDB , RethinkDB , OpenERP , SugarCRM as well as WURFL utilizing the license for this purpose. [11] Flask developer Armin Ronacher stated that the AGPLv 3 was a “terrible success” as well as a MongoDB , RethinkDB , OpenERP , SugarCRM as well as WURFL utilizing the license for this purpose. [11] Flask developer Armin Ronacher stated that the AGPLv 3 was a “terrible success” as well as a MongoDB , RethinkDB , OpenERP , SugarCRM as well as WURFL utilizing the license for this purpose. [11]

Selling professional services

The financial return of costs on open-source software can also come from selling services , such as training, technical support , or consulting , rather than the software itself. [12] [13] [14]

Another possibility is open-source software in source code , which provides executable binaries to paying customers only, offering the commercial service of compiling and packaging of the software. Also, providing goods like physical installation media (eg, DVDs ) can be a commercial service.

Open-source companies using this business model successfully are for instance RedHat and IBM ; [15] a more specialized example of Revolution Analytics .

Selling of branded merchandise

Some open-source organizations such as the Mozilla Foundation [16] and the Wikimedia Foundation [17] sell branded merchandise articles like t-shirts and coffee mugs. This can also be seen as an additional service provided to the user community .

Selling of certificates and trademark use

Main article: Franchising

Another financing approach is Innovated by Moodle , an open source learning management system and community platform. [19] [19] The business model revolves around a network of commercial partners [20] who are certificated and therefore authorized to use the Moodle name and logo , [21] and in turn provide a proportion of revenue to the Moodle Trust, which Funds core development. [22]

Selling software as a service

Selling subscriptions for online customers is a way of making profit based on open-source software. Also, combining desktop software with a service, called software plus services . Providing cloud computing services or software as a service (SaaS) without the release of the open-source software Itself, neither in nor binary in source form, Conforms with open-source licensing most (with exception of the AGPL ).

Because of its lack of software freedoms, Richard Stallman calls SaaS “inherently bad” while acknowledging its legality. [23] [24] The FSF calls the server-side use-case without release of the source code ” ASP loophole in the GPLv2″ and therefore encourages the use of the Affero General Public License which plugged this hole in 2002. [ 25] [26] In 2007 the FSF contemplated including the special provision of AGPLv1 into GPLv3 but ultimately decided to keep the licenses separate. [27]

Partnership with funding organizations

Other financial services. Governments , universities , companies, and non-governmental organizations may develop an open-source license. Some organizations support the development of open-source software by grants or stipends , like Google’s Summer of Code initiative founded in 2005. [2]

Voluntary donations

Main article: Donationware

Also, there were experiments by Independent developers to fund development of open-source software donation -driven directly by the users, eg, with the Illumination Software Creator in 2012. [28] SourceForge , for example, It hosts that opt ​​to accept donations. [29] Internet micro-payments systems like PayPal , flattr , and Bitcoin help this approach.

Larger donation campaigns also exists. In 2004 the Mozilla Foundation carried out a fundraising campaign to support the launch of the Firefox 1.0 web browser . It was a two-page ad in the December 16 edition of the New York Times listing the names of the thousands who had donated. [30] [31]

Bounty driven development

Main article: Open-source bounty

The users of a particular software artifact may come together and pool money into an open-source bounty for the implementation of a desired feature or functionality. Offering bounties as funding has existed for some time. For instance, Buntysource is a web platform that has offered this funding model for open source software since 2003.

Another bounty source for companies or foundations that set up bounty programs for implemented features or bugfixes in open-source software related to them. For instance, Mozilla has been paying and funding freelance open-source programmers for security bug hunting and fixing since 2004. [32] [33] [34]

Pre-order / crowdfunding / reverse-bounty model

A newer funding opportunity for open source software projects is crowdfunding , qui shares Similarities with the pre-order gold Praenumeration business model, as well as the reverse bounty model, Typically Organized over web platforms like Kickstarter , [35] Indiegogo , [36] Or Bountysource [4] (see also comparison of crowd funding services ). One example is the successfully funded Indiegogo campaign in 2013 by Australian programmer Timothy Arceri, who offered to implement an OpenGL 4.3 extension for the Mesa library in two weeks for $ 2,500. [36] Arceri delivered the OpenGL extension code which was promptly merged upstream, and he continued his efforts on Mesa with successive crowdfunding campaigns. [37] Later, he found work with an employee in this domain with Collabora and in 2017 with Valve Corporation . [38] Another example is the June 2013 crowdfunding is Kickstarter [39] [40] of the open source video game Cataclysm: Dark Days Ahead qui raised the payment of a full-time developer for 3.5 months. Patreon funding has also become an effective option, as the service gives the option to pay out each month to creators, Many of whom intend to develop free software. [41]

Advertising-supported software

In order to commercialize FOSS, many companies (including Google , Mozilla , and Canonical ) have moved towards an economic model of advertising-supported software . For instance, the open-source application AdBlock Plus gets paid by Google for letting whitelisted Acceptable Ads bypassing the browser ad remover. [42] As another example is SourceForge , an open-source project service provider, has the revenue model of advertising on their website. In 2006, SourceForge reported quarterly takings of $ 6.5 million [43] and $ 23 million in 2009. [44]

Selling of optional proprietary extensions

Main article: Open core

Some companies sell proprietary but optional extensions, modules, plugins or add-ons to an open-source software product. This may be a “license conform” approach with many open-source licenses if done technically sufficiently carefully. For instance, mixing proprietary code and open source licensed code in statically linked libraries [45] gold compiling all source code together in a software product might open source licenses violate, while keeping ’em separated by interfaces and dynamic-link libraries might Often acceded To license conform.

This approach is a variant of the freemium business model. The proprietary software may be more efficient and efficient, better or better, or secure it better. Examples include the IBM Linux software , where IBM contributes to the Linux open-source ecosystem, but it builds and delivers (to IBM’s paying customers) database software , middleware , and other software that runs on top of the open-source core. Other examples of proprietary products built on open-source software include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Cloudera ‘ S Apache Hadoop -based software. Some companies appear to re-invest a portion of their financial profits from the sale of proprietary software back into the open source infrastructure. [46]

Some companies, such as Digium , sell proprietary but optional digital electronics hardware controlled by an open-source software product. [47]

Selling of required proprietary parts of a software product

A variant of the above-mentioned approach to the maintenance of the required data content (for instance a video game ‘s audio, graphic, and other art assets). While this approach is completely legitimate and compatible with most open-source licenses, [48] Restrictive licenses can then be applied on the content, which prevents the redistribution or re-selling of the complete software product. Examples for open-source software are Kot-in-Action Creative Artel video game Steel Storm , engine GPLv2 licensed while artwork is CC-BY-NC-SA 3. 0 licensed, [49] and Frogatto & Friends with an own open-source engine Developed [50] and commercialization via the copyrighted game assets [51] for iPhone , BlackBerry and MacOS . [52] [53] [54] [55]

Other examples are Arx Fatalis (by Arkane Studios ) [56] and Catacomb 3-D (by Flat Rock Software ) [57] with source code released after release, while copyrighted assets and binaries are still sold on gog.com As digital distribution . [58] [59]

Doing so conforms with the FSF and Richard Stallman, who stated that for the sake of art or entertainment the software is not required or important. [60]

The similar product bundling of an open-source software product with hardware qui Prevents users from running modified versions of the software s’intitule Tivoization and is legal with open source licenses except MOST GPLv3 , qui Explicitly prohibits this use-case. [61]

Re-licensing under a proprietary license

If a software product uses only own software and open-source software under a permissive free software license , a company can re-license the resulting and software product under a proprietary license and sell the product without the source code or software Freedoms . [62] For instance, Apple Inc. is an avid user of this approach by using source code and software from open-source projects. For example, the BSD Unix operating system kernel (under the BSD license ) was used in Apple’s Mac PCs that were sold as proprietary products. [63]

Obfuscation of source code

An approach to allow commercialization under some open-source licenses while still protecting crucial business secrets, intellectual property and technical know-how is obfuscation of source code. This approach was used in several cases, for instance by Nvidia in their open-source graphic card device drivers. [64] This practice is used to get the open-source-friendly propaganda without bearing the inconveniences. Copyright © 2000-2012, All Rights Reserved. All rights reserved. Copyleft software licensed by permission of the author.

The Free Software Foundation , on the other hand, is clearly against this practice. [65] The GNU General Public License since version 2 has defined “source code” as “the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it.” This is intended to prevent the release of obfuscated source code. [66]

Delayed open-sourcing

Some companies provide the latest version available only to paying customers. A vendor forks a non- copyleft software project then adds closed-source additions to it and sells the resulting software. After a fixed time period the patches are released back upstream under the same license as the rest of the codebase. This business model is called lagging or time delaying. [46] [67]

For instance, the MariaDB Corporation created for business “delayed open-sourcing” the source-available Business source license (BSL) [68] which automatically re- allocates to the FOSS GPL. [69] [70] This approach garantuees for licensees That They Have source access code (eg for code audits ) are not locked into a closed platform , or Suffer from planned obsolescence , while for the software developer has time-limited exclusive commercialization is possible. [69]

HOWEVER, this approach only works with own software or permissive licensed code shares, as there is no copyleft FOSS license disponible qui Allows the time delayed opening of the source code after-distributing or selling of a software product.

Open sourcing on end-of-life

See also: List of commercial software with available source code
See also: List of commercial video games with available source code

Extreme year variant of “open-sourcing delayed” is a business practice popularized by id Software [71] [72] and 3D Realms , [73] [74] qui released Several software products under a free software license After long proprietary commercialization time Period and the return of investment was achieved. The motivation of companies Following this practice of releasing the source code When A Software Reaches the business end-of-life, is to prevent prevention That Their Software Becomes unsupported Abandonware or Even get lost due to digital obsolescence . [75] This gives the user communities the chance to continue development and support of the software product themselves as open-source software project. [76] Many examples from the video game domain are in the list of business video games later released with source code .

Popular non-game software examples are the Netscape Communicator qui Was open-sourced in 1998 [77] [78] and Sun Microsystems ‘ s office suite , StarOffice , qui Was released in October 2000 at shopping ict end of life. [79] Both releases formed the basis of important open-source projects, namely Mozilla Firefox and OpenOffice.org / LibreOffice . Firefox, Firefox, Firefox, Firefox, Firefox, Firefox, Firefox.

FOSS and economy

Main article: Open-source economics

According to Yochai Benkler , the Berkman Professor for Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard Law School , free software is the most visible part of a new economy of commons-based peer production of information, knowledge, and culture. As examples, he cites a variety of FOSS projects, including both free software and open source. [80]

This new economy is already under development. In order to commercialize FOSS, many companies, Google being the most successful, are moving towards an economic model of advertising-supported software . In such a model, the only way to increase revenue is to make more valuable. Facebook has just come under fire for using novel user tracking methods to accomplish this. [81]

This new economy is not without alternatives. Apple’s App Stores have proven very popular with both users and developers. The Free Software Foundation considers Apple’s App Stores to be incompatible with its GPL and complained [82] that Apple was infringing on the GPL with its iTunes terms of use. Rather than change the terms to comply with the GPL, Apple removed the GPL-licensed products from its App Stores. [83] The authors of VLC , one of the GPL-licensed programs at the center of these complaints, has recently begun to process the GPL to the LGPL and MPL . [84] [85]

Examples

Main article: List of commercial open-source applications and services

Much of the Internet runs on open-source software tools and utilities Such as Linux , Apache , MySQL , and PHP , Known As the LAMP stack for web servers. Citation needed ] Using open source applications to develop software for three main reasons: low or no cost, access to source code they can tailor themselves, and a shared community that ensures a robust code base, with quick fixes for new issues.

Despite doing much business in proprietary software, some companies like Oracle Corporation and IBM are participating in developing free and open source software to deter from monopolies and take a portion of market share for themselves. See Commercial open-source applications for the open-source offerings. Netscape ‘s actions were an example of this, and thus Mozilla Firefox has become more popular, getting market share from Internet Explorer . [86]

  • Active Agenda is offered for free, but requires all extensions to be shared back with the world community. The project sells a “Non-Reciprocal Private License” to anyone interested in keeping module extensions private.
  • Adobe Systems offers Flex for free, while selling the Flash Builder IDE .
  • Apple Inc. offers Darwin for free, while selling Mac OS X .
  • Asterisk (PBX) , digital electronics hardware controlled by open-source software
  • Codeweavers sells CrossOver commercially, deriving it from the free Wine project they also back.
  • Canonical Ltd. Offers Ubuntu for free, while they sell commercial technical support contracts.
  • Cloudera ‘s Apache Hadoop -based software.
  • Francisco Burzi offers PHP-Nuke for free, but the latest version is offered commercially.
  • DaDaBIK , although a donationware approach, requires a small, minimum donation fee, to be downloaded.
  • IBM proprietary Linux software , where IBM delivers database software , middleware and other software.
  • Ingres is offered for free, but services and support are offered as a subscription. The Ingres Icebreaker Appliance is also offered as a commercial database appliance.
  • Id Software releases their legacy game engines under the GPL, while retaining proprietary ownership on their latest incarnation.
  • Mozilla Foundation has a partnership with Google and other companies which provides revenue for the inclusion of search engines in Mozilla Firefox .
  • MySQL is a free, open-source, cross-platform, open source web application.
  • SUSE offers openSUSE for free through the openSUSE Project , while selling SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE).
  • OpenSearchServer offers its community edition on SourceForge and an enterprise edition
  • Oracle – VirtualBox is free and open to anyone, the purpose VirtualBox Extension Pack can only be used for free at home, THUS Requiring payment from business users
  • OWASP Foundation is a professional community of open-source developers focused on making visible for software security.
  • Red Hat sells subscriptions Support for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) qui is an enterprise distribution Periodically forked from the community-developed Fedora .
  • Sourcefire offers Snort for free, while selling Sourcefire 3D.
  • Sun Microsystems ( acquired by Oracle in 2010) onceoff OpenOffice.org for free, while selling StarOffice
  • Untangle provides its Lite Package for free
  • Zend Technologies offers Zend Server CE and Zend Framework for free, but sells Zend Server with support and additional features.

References

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  21. Jump up^ “The Moodle Trademark” . Moodle . 2016 . Retrieved 18 June2016 .
  22. Jump up^ Kolowich, Steve (March 27, 2012). “Blackboard’s Open-Source Pivot” . Inside Higher Ed . Retrieved 18 June 2016 .
  23. Jump up^ Molla, Rani (6 August 2013). “Hacktivist Richard Stallman takes on proprietary software, SaaS and open source” . Gigaom . Knowingly, Inc . Retrieved 18 June 2016 . He (…) claims software as a service (SaaS) is inherently bad because your information goes through a server beyond your control and that server can add additional software when it likes.
  24. Jump up^ Johnson, Bobbie (29 September 2008). “Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman” . The Guardian . Retrieved 18 June 2016 . Web-based programs like Google’s Gmail will force people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that will cost more and more over time, according to the free software campaigner
  25. Jump up^ “Licenses” . GNU Project . Free Software Foundation. The GNU Affero General Public License . Retrieved 18 June 2016 . We recommend that people consider using the GNU AGPL for any software that will commonly be run over a network.
  26. Jump up^ Tiemann, Michael (7 June 2007). “GNU Affero GPL version 3 and the” ASP loophole ” ” . Open Source Initiative . Retrieved 18 June 2016 .
  27. Jump up^ “Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses” . GNU Project . Free Software Foundation . 26 May 2016. Why did you decide to write the GNU Affero GPLv3 as a separate license? . Retrieved 18 June 2016 .
  28. Jump up^ Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (2012-06-01). “Will You Help Change The Way Open-Source Apps Are Funded?” . OMGUbuntu . Retrieved 2013-08-08 . Linux Tycoon – for free, under the GPL, if he can reach a donation-driven funding goal of $ 4000 / m. Reaching this goal, Lunduke says, ‘will provide proof for others, who would also like to move their business software to open source, that’s doable.’
  29. Jump up^ SourceForge.net Donation Systemon sourceforge.net
  30. Jump up^ Mozilla Foundation (December 15, 2004). “Mozilla Foundation Places Two-Page Advocacy Ad in the New York Times” . Retrieved June 15, 2010 .
  31. Jump up^ Marson, Ingrid (2004-12-16). “New York Times runs Firefox ad” . Cnet.com . Retrieved 2013-08-12 . Fans of the Mozilla Foundation ‘s Firefox browser which funded an advertisement in The New York Times will finally get to see their names in print on Thursday.
  32. Jump up^ Leyden, John (2004-08-03), Mozilla to pay bounty on bugs ,The Register , retrieved 2013-08-10
  33. Jump up^ Evers, Joris (July 25, 2005). “Offering a bounty for security bugs” . CNET . CBS Interactive . Retrieved 12 August 2007 .
  34. Jump up^ “Mozilla Foundation Announces Security Bug Bounty Program” . Mozilla Foundation . Mountain View, California . August 2, 2004 . Retrieved 2013-08-10 .
  35. Jump up^ Lunduke, Bryan (2013-08-07). “Open source gets its own crowd-funding site, with bounties included – Bountysource is the crowd-funding site for the open source community.” . Networkworld.com . Retrieved 2013-08-10 . Many open source projects (from phones to programming tools) have taken to crowd-funding sites (such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo) in order to raise the cash needed for large-scale development. And, in some cases, this has worked out quite well.
  36. ^ Jump up to:b Arceri, Timothy (2013-07-26). “Help improve OpenGL support for Linux Graphics Drivers” . Indiegogo . Retrieved 2013-08-11 . Helping fund the time for me to become a mesa codebase. Many people have come up with the idea of ​​crowd sourcing open source driver development. This is a small scale experiment to see if it could actually work.
  37. Jump up^ Crowd-Funding Is Back For Another Mesa Extensionby Michael Larabel onPhoronix(12 November 2013)
  38. Jump up^ Arceri-Joined-Valveonphoronix.combyMichael Larabel(February 14, 2017)
  39. Jump up^ “Cataclysm: Dark Days Ahead – Dedicated Developer” . Kickstarter . 22 June 2013.
  40. Jump up^ “Multipocalyptic Roguelike Cataclysm: Dark Days Ahead Turns To Kickstarter” . Archived from the original on 2014-04-01.
  41. Jump up^ Marchant, Julie. “Julie Marchant is creating free video games”. Patreon .
  42. Jump up^ Callaham, John (2013-06-06). “Report: Google paying AdBlock Plus to not block Google’s ads” . Neowin .com . Retrieved 2013-08-13 . Google is paying money to Eyeo, the company behind AdBlock Plus, so that its ads get through the browser ad remover.
  43. Jump up^ Hunt, Katherine (2007-05-24). “Sourceforge quarterly profit surges as returned rises” . Marketwatch.com . Retrieved 2013-08-13 . Software Corp., late Thursday reported third-quarter net earnings of $ 6.49 million, or 9 cents a share, up from $ 997,000, or 2 cents a share, during the year-ago period. Pro forma earnings from continuing operations were $ 2.1 million, or 3 cents a share, compared with $ 1.2 million, or 2 cents a share, last year. The Fremont, Calif.-based maker of computer servers and storage systems for the month ended April 30 rose to $ 10.3 million from $ 7.9 million. Analysts, on average, had a per-share profit of 2 cents on revenue of $ 12 million.
  44. Jump up^ “SourceForge Reports Second Quarter Fiscal 2009 Financial Results” .
  45. Jump up^ Hustvedt, Eskild (2009-02-08). “Our new way to meet the LGPL” . Archived from the original on 2009-02-20 . Retrieved 2011-03-09 . You can use a special keyword $ ORIGIN to say ‘relative to the actual location of the executable’. Suddenly we found we could use -rpath $ ORIGIN / lib and it worked. The game was loaded the correct libraries, and so was stable and portable, but was now completely in the spirit of the LGPL as well as the letter!
  46. ^ Jump up to:b Mike Olson (co-founder and CEO of Sleepycat Software and Cloudera ), reading to Stanford University entrepreneurship students , 2013.11.13
  47. Jump up^ Twenty Years of Experience in Software Development in Silicon Valley,Kim PoleseReading at Stanford University engineering entrepreneurship students, 2005.11.09
  48. Jump up^ “TTimo / doom3.gpl” . GitHub . 2012-04-07 . Retrieved 2013-08-10 . Doom 3 GPL source release […] This source does not contain any game data, the game data is still covered by the original EULA and must be obeyed as usual.
  49. Jump up^ “STEEL STORM EPISODE 1 LIMITED USER SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT” . Steel-storm.com . Retrieved 2013-08-10 . For the purpose of this Agreement, the Art Assets include pk3 archive of ‘steelstorm / gamedata /’ folder that contains two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art, photographs, prints and art reproductions, maps, charts, diagrams, models , And technical drawings, sound effects and musical arrangements, documentation and tutorial videos, and are licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. The Engine, which includes Windows, Linux and Mac binaries, and the Engine’s source code, are licensed under GNU GPL v2 license.
  50. Jump up^ Simpson, Kristina (2015-04-26). “LICENSE” . Anura-engine – GitHub . Retrieved 2015-10-10 .
  51. Jump up^ License “CC-BY 3.0 LICENSE […] assets under copyright”on github.com/frogatto
  52. Jump up^ Humble Indie Bundle’s Source Releasesby Iwan Gabovitch“Another game that is commercial (on iDevices) and has FOSS code and closed art […] is Frogatto.” (April 22, 2011)
  53. Jump up^ Frogatto by Lost Pixelon itunes.apple.com
  54. Jump up^ “Frogatto & Friends for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes App Store” . Retrieved 2012-03-03 .
  55. Jump up^ “BlackBerry App World: Frogatto” . Retrieved 16 March 2012 .
  56. Jump up^ Nick (2011-01-14). “Arx Fatalis source code, patch released!”. Bethblog.com . Retrieved 2011-08-10 .
  57. Jump up^ Larabel, Michael (June 6, 2014). “Id Software’s Softdisk Open-Sources Some Really Old Games” . Phoronix . Retrieved 6 June2014 .
  58. Jump up^ Straight out of the Dungeon, Arx Fatalis invades GOG.com
  59. Jump up^ catacomb packon gog.com
  60. Jump up^ Stallman, Richard (2012). “On-line education is using a flawed Creative Commons license” . Stallman.org . Retrieved 2013-08-10 . In my view, nonfree licenses that allow you to share your artworks with others. Those works are not meant for doing a practical job, so the argument about the users’ control does not apply. Thus, I do not object if they are published with the CC-BY-NC-ND license, which allows only noncommercial redistribution of exact copies.
  61. Jump up^ “Eben Moglen, speaking about GPLv3 in Barcelona” .
  62. Jump up^ Montague, Bruce (2013-11-13). “Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project – GPL Advantages and Disadvantages” . FreeBSD . Retrieved 2015-11-28 . In contrast to the GPL, which is designed to prevent the proprietary commercialization of open source code, the BSD licensing minimal restrictions on future behavior. This allows BSD code to remain Open Source or become integrated into commercial solutions, as a project or company’s needs change. In other words, the BSD license does not become a legal time-bomb at any point in the development process. In addition, since the BSD license does not come with the legal complexity of the GPL or LGPL licenses,
  63. Jump up^ Oram, Andy (2011-08-26). “How Free Software Contributed to the Success of Steve Jobs and Apple” . Radar.oreilly.com . Retrieved 2013-08-10 . The BSD license allowed Apple to keep its proprietary changes
  64. Jump up^ NVIDIA Drops Their Open-Source Driver, Refers Users to VESA Driveronphoronix The xf86-video-nv driver has been around that provides very basic 2D acceleration and a crippled set of features KMS, power management, etc.) while the code has also been obfuscated to try to protect their intellectual property.
  65. Jump up^ Obfuscated “source code” is not real source code and does not count as source code. -https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html
  66. Jump up^ “Reasoning behind the” preferred form “language in the GPL”. lwn.net. 2011-03-07 . Retrieved 2013-08-19 .
  67. Jump up^ Phoronix – Towards A Real Business Model For Open-Source SoftwareonPhoronix.com
  68. Jump up^ bsl “Change Date: 2019-01-01, Change License: Version 2 or later of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.” On mariadb.com (August 2016)
  69. ^ Jump up to:b MySQL daddy Widenius: Open source MariaDB on theregister .com (August 2016)
  70. Jump up^ A new release of the MaxScale database proxy – essential to deploying MariaDB at scale – features a proprietary licenseonInfoWorldbySimon Phipps(Aug 19, 2016)
  71. Jump up^ id Software releases Doom 3 source codeon h-online.com (3 November 2011)
  72. Jump up^ id Software makes iPhone Wolfenstein open sourceby Spanner Spencer (March 2009)
  73. Jump up^ Shadow Warrior Source Code Released3D Realms (April 1, 2005)
  74. Jump up^ SOURCE CODE Selected games have had their source code released by us. These games are: Duke Nukem 3D, Shadow Warrior, Rise of the Triad, Word Whiz, Beyond the Titanic, Supernova, & Kroz. You can get these from our downloads page.
  75. Jump up^ Andersen, John (2011-01-27). “Where Games Go To Sleep: The Game Preservation Crisis, Part 1” . Gamasutra . Retrieved 2013-01-10 . The existence of decaying technology, disorganization, and poor storage could in theory put a video game to sleep permanently – never to be played again. Troubling admissions have surfaced over the years regarding video game preservation. When questions about re-releases of certain game titles are brought up during interviews with developers, for example, these developers would reveal issues of game production material being lost or destroyed. Certain game titles could not see a re-release due to various issues.
  76. Jump up^ Bell, John (2009-10-01). “Opening the Source of Art” . Technology Innovation Management Review . Retrieved 2013-08-09 . […] that no further patches to the title would be forthcoming. The community was predictably upset. Instead of giving up on the game, users decided that if they were not going to fix the bugs, they would. They wanted to save the game by getting Activision lost interest. With some help from members of the development team who were active on fan forums, they were eventually able to convince.
  77. Jump up^ “NETSCAPE ANNOUNCES PLANS TO MAKE NEXT-GENERATION COMMUNICATOR SOURCE CODE AVAILABLE FREE ON THE NET” . Netscape Communications Corporation . 1998-01-22. Archived from the original on 2007-04-01 . Retrieved 2013-08-08 . BOLD MOVE TO HARNESS CREATIVE POWER OF THOUSANDS OF INTERNET DEVELOPERS; COMPANY MAKES NETSCAPE NAVIGATOR AND COMMUNICATOR 4.0 FREE IMMEDIATELY FOR ALL USERS, SEEDING MARKET FOR ENTERPRISE AND NETCENTER BUSINESSES
  78. Jump up^ “MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif., April 1 / PRNewswire / – Netscape Communications and open source developers are celebrating the first anniversary, March 31, 1999, of the release of Netscape’s browser source code to mozilla.org . Netscape Communications1999-03-31 . Retrieved 2013-01-10 . […] The organization that manages open source developers working on the next generation of Netscape’s browser and communication software. This event has been a major milestone for the Internet as Netscape became the first major commercial software company to open its source code. Since the code was first published on the Internet, Thousands of individuals and organizations have downloaded it and made hundreds of contributions to the software.Mozilla.org is now celebrating this one-year anniversary with a party Thursday night in San Francisco.
  79. Jump up^ Proffitt, Brian (2000-10-13). “StarOffice Code Released in Largest Open Source Project” . Linuxtoday.com . Retrieved 2013-01-10 . Sun’s joint effort with CollabNet kicked into high gear on the OpenOffice Web site at 5 am PST this morning with the release of much of the source code for the upcoming 6.0 version of StarOffice. According to Sun, this release of 9 million lines of code under GPL is the beginning of the largest open source software project ever.
  80. Jump up^ Benkler, Yochai (April 2003). “Freedom in the Commons: Towards a Political Economy of Information” . Duke Law Journal52 (6).
  81. Jump up^ ElBoghdady, Dina; Hayley Tsukayama (2011-09-30). “Facebook tracking prompt calls for FTC investigation” . Washington Post . Retrieved 23 October 2011 .
  82. Jump up^ vlc-for-ios-vanishes-2-months-after-eruption-of-gpl-dispute.arson arstechnica
  83. Jump up^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven. “No GPL Apps for Apple’s App Store”. Retrieved 23 October 2011 .
  84. Jump up^ “Changing the VLC engine license to LGPL” . Retrieved 23 October 2011 .
  85. Jump up^ VLC under Mozilla public relaunched. Accessed 10/10/2013
  86. Jump up^ Netscape Navigator # The fall of Netscape

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