A series of incidents in 2009 led to Church of Scientology -owned networks being banned from making edits to Wikipedia articles relating to Scientology . The Church of Scientology has long had a controversial history on the Internet , and has initiated campaigns to manipulate material and remove information from the web. From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Scientology on the website. Disputes Began in earnest in 2005, with users disagreeing about whether or not to describe Scientology as an abusive cult or religion . By 2006, Disagreements about the topic of Scientology on Wikipedia had grown more specific. Wikipedia user and Scientology critic David Gerard commented to the Daily Telegraph in 2006 that some articles were neutral due to a requirement to reference stated facts. [3]

Revelations from software produced by Virgil Griffith in 2007 called WikiScanner made public the nature of edits on Wikipedia which were able to be traced directly back to Church of Scientology-controlled computers. CBS News and The Independent Report by the Church of Scientology on the subject. The Times and Forbes noted that Scientologists were using the Church of Scientology to form an anti-cult organization , which was taken by Scientology, the Cult Awareness Network . Der Spiegel Reported That Wikiscanner Revealed Scientology computers Were used to Promote Scientology’s critical view of psychiatry , Including Adding links to Scientology-founded the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR) and to websites of other groups affiliated with Scientology. [4]

In January 2009, The Register Reported Involving Scientology case was before Wikipedia’s Arbitration Committee . The Arbitration Committee on Wikipedia is a group of volunteers elected by the editing community to resolve especially difficult conflicts. Wikipedia and the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search One user going by the pseudonym “COFS” admitted this pattern of editing, and stated the edits from Scientology computers would continue. In May 2009, the Arbitration Committee decided to restrict editing from IP addresses belonging to the Church of Scientology, To prevent biased edits by editors within Church of Scientology-administered networks. The decision accorded Scientology-controlled IP addresses the same blockable status as open proxies on the site. A large number of Scientology critics were banned as well. “The worst casualties”, “The Battlefield Tactics” and “The Battlefield Tactics”. [5] [6] With articles on living being the “worst casualties”. [5] [6] With articles on living being the “worst casualties”. [5] [6]

Arbitration Committee member Roger Davies wrote the majority of the decision, and commented to the New York Times that due to the controversial nature of the case, the decision was crafted so as not to focus directly upon any particular individual. [7] Wikipedia Media Contact Dan Rosenthal Emphasized in a statement to ABC News That It Was agent de la procedure on the website to ban users HAD That policy violated Intended to prevent prevention em from Promoting propaganda. [8] Wikimedia Foundation spokesman and head of communications Jay Walsh said to Bloomberg BusinessWeek the Arbitration was intended to help restore Scientology-related articles to an acceptable state on the site. [9] Wikimedia Germany spokesperson Catrin Schoneville stated to Computerwoche that the decision impacted the English Wikipedia , and noted it was unclear whether a similar ruling might be applied to the German Wikipedia . [10] Statements from Scientology spokeswoman Karin Pouw labelled the Arbitration as a routine matter, and maintained there were still “gross inaccuracies” on the Scientology article. [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw denied the presence of an organized campaign by the Church of Scientology to manipulate Wikipedia. [11] Scientology representative Tommy Davis emphasized to the St. Petersburg Times that users of the organization were also banned, and similarly denied that scientology leadership had a campaign to manipulate entries on Wikipedia. [12]

background

Main article: Scientology and the Internet

The Church of Scientology has a controversial history on the Internet . [13] It has been criticized for attempting to restrict freedom of speech on the Internet; this conflict has come to Be Known as Scientology versus the Internet , [14] [15] [16] gold Scientology v. The Net . [17] [18] [19] The organization has attempted to manipulate and maintain power over its public image on the web. [13] [14] Early lawsuits involved in this dispute have included Religious Technology Center v. Netcom , [18] as well as Religious Technology Center v. FACT Net . [20] Writing in his book, Cyber ​​Rights: Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age , author Mike Godwin noted, “In one of the earliest widely publicized sets of cases involving intellectual property on the Net, the Church of Scientology has been exploring the Uses of copyright and trade secret law when it comes to silencing its critics, many of them form members of the church. ” [18] The Guardian noted, “According to insiders and security experts, Scientologists have been conducting concerted campaigns for more than a decade. [13] In response to criticism over its actions on the Internet, Scientology has declared that it is a matter of time to defend the copyrights over its secretive spiritual documents. [14] [15]

Legal Involved boxes-have a newsgroup Focused on the topic called Expired alt.religion.scientology , qui Revealed information from advanced Scientology methods Including the Operating Thetan (OT) levels That describe the story of Xenu . [14] [15] In 1995, attorneys representing the Church of Scientology tried to get alt.religion.scientology removed from Usenet . [14] [16] This maneuver had the opposite impact for Scientology, serving to drive up popularity of alt.religion.scientology and resulting in a “declaration of war” From the hacker organization Cult of the Dead Cow . [16] Professor David S. Touretzky of the Computer Science Department and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania, is a critic of Scientology and Proponent of Freedom of Speech on the Internet. [15] He noted the Scientology organization was, “trying to threaten freedom of speech on the Internet by making service providers legally responsible for their customers’ speech.” [15] Wendy M. Grossman , journalist and founder of The Skeptic ,

“Scientology versus the Net … was the original net.war.” The story was at heart pretty simple (and the skirmishes continues, in various translations into newer media, to this day). The Scientology of the Scientology of Scientology, The Scientology of Scientology, The Scientology of Scientology.

Three people can keep a secret if two of ’em are dead, Said Mark Twain . That was before the Internet. Scientology was the first to learn – nearly 15 years ago – that’s the best way to ensure the maximum publicity for something to be suppressed. ” [21]

History

Early conflict

Conflict within the topic of Scientology on Wikipedia arose early on from the website’s beginnings. [22] Author Jonathan Zittrain Noted in The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It , His 2009 book published by Yale University Press , That “as Wikipedia Grew It Began to Attract editors Who HAD never crossed paths before, and Who disagreed we They were simultaneously editing. One person would say that Scientology was a ‘cult’, the other would change it back to ‘religion,’ and the first would revert it back again. ” [22] In a 2005 article about Wikipedia for The Guardian , Charles Arthur noted individuals debated online,

In 2006, on Wikipedia, the topic of Scientology was drawn out over specific disagreements. [24] Journalist Alan Bjerga of McClatchy Newspapers reported in August 2006, “Wayne Saewyc, a Wikipedia spokesman, said debates on controversial topics can become incredibly time-consuming and sometimes maddening. months over whether the Scientologist method of childbirth shoulds be called Expired ‘silent birth’ or ‘quiet birth. ‘ ” [24]In an October 2006 Article about Wikipedia Paul Vallely of The Independent commented That,” Some pages sccm to-have-been taken over By fanatics and special interest groups (try the Scientology page). ” [25]Wikipedia user and Scientology critic David Gerard commented to The Daily Telegraph in October 2006 about the state of Scientology articles on the site, saying” he believes the Wikipedia entry is the most balanced and informative account to be found anywhere on the web . ” [3] Gerard commented on” NPOV “(neutral point of view) in the topic,” This is a good example of why NPOV is one of the most revolutionary things about Wikipedia. On the web you’ll find a lot of Church of Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ sites, which are very bitter. On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts. ” [3] [25] Wikipedia user and Scientology critic David Gerard commented to the Daily Telegraph in October 2006 about the state of Scientology articles on the site, saying “he believes the Wikipedia is the most balanced and informative account to be found anywhere on the web. ” [3] Gerard commented on “NPOV” (neutral point of view) in the topic, “This is a good example of why NPOV is one of the most revolutionary things about Wikipedia. Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ websites, which are very bitter. “On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts.” [3] [25] Wikipedia user and Scientology critic David Gerard commented to the Daily Telegraph in October 2006 about the state of Scientology articles on the site, saying “he believes the Wikipedia is the most balanced and informative account to be found anywhere on the web. ” [3] Gerard commented on “NPOV” (neutral point of view) in the topic, “This is a good example of why NPOV is one of the most revolutionary things about Wikipedia. Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ websites, which are very bitter. “On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts.” [3] [3] Gerard commented on “NPOV” (neutral point of view) in the topic, “This is a good example of why NPOV is One of the most revolutionary things about Wikipedia. On the web you’ll find a lot of Church of Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ sites, which are very bitter. On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts. ” [3] [3] Gerard commented on “NPOV” (neutral point of view) in the topic, “This is a good example of why NPOV is One of the most revolutionary things about Wikipedia. On the web you’ll find a lot of Church of Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ sites, which are very bitter. On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts. ” [3] Ll find a lot of Church of Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ sites, which are very bitter. On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts. ” [3] Ll find a lot of Church of Scientology sites, and a lot of critics’ sites, which are very bitter. On Wikipedia you have to be neutral, and you have to be able to reference your facts. ” [3]

WikiScanner revelations

The development of the WikiScanner software by Virgil Griffith in 2007 revealed changes made to Wikipedia articles by Scientology organization computers. [26] CBS Newsreported, “Many of the edicts are predictably self-interested: PCs in Scientology are used to remove criticism in the church’s Wikipedia entry.” [27] The Independent noted, “Computers with IP addresses traced to the Church of Scientology were used to expunge critical paragraphs about the cult’s world-wide operations.” [28] The Times reported that the Church of Scientology was used to manipulate information in the Wikipedia article about the Cult Awareness Network , “A computer linked to the Church of Scientology A group dubbed the ‘Cult Awareness Network. ‘ ” [29] Forbes noted,” Scientology officials appear to have an anti-cult organization. ” [30] [29] Forbes noted, “Scientology officials appear to have removed critical comments from an anti-cult organization.” [30] [29] Forbes noted, “Scientology officials appear to have removed critical comments from an anti-cult organization.” [30]

Der Spiegel in the Church of Scientology. From 2003 to 2007, 170 edits were made, a large proportion of which focused on Scientologist views of critical psychiatry . The article “Kurt Cobain ” was edited by Scientologists in a Scientology-founded ” Citizens Commission on Human Rights ” (CCHR); [4] and an edit to the article put forth the notion that, “the singer’s childhood Ritalin prescription led him to suicide”. [31] Multiple edits involved adding links to webpages of organizations affiliated with Scientology. [4]

Reporting for Slate , Journalist Michael Agger, edited by a scientologist. Virgil Griffith explained, “Technically, we do not know if it comes from an agent of that company. “This is a great place to stay.” [31]

Project Chanology

Main article: Project Chanology

After the Scientology organization tried to remove a promotional movie of Scientology featuring celebrity member Tom Cruise from the Internet, a group of web-based activists Known As ” Anonymous ” focused efforts contre Scientology. [13] Anonymous disrupted Scientology websites and spread anti-Scientologist materials online. [13] In July 2008, Messenger Newspapers noted, “A war between the Internet collective Anonymous and the Church of Scientology” had been “fought out broadly on the battlefields of YouTube, Wikipedia and other websites”, before emerging to become a movement with protests Taking place in front of Scientology buildings. [32] Known as Project Chanology , the movement was “Organized from a Wikipedia-style website”. [33] The New York Times Noted That through ict action related to Attempts to remove the Tom Cruise video from the Internet, the Church of Scientology est devenu a victim of the Streisand effect – a phenomenon whereby Attempts to suppress information on the Internet end up HAVING The opposite impact. [34] [33] The New York TimesNoted That through ict action related to Attempts to remove the Tom Cruise video from the Internet, the Church of Scientology est devenu a victim of the Streisand effect – a phenomenon whereby Attempts to suppress information on the Internet end up HAVING The opposite impact. [34] [33] The New York Times Noted That through ict action related to Attempts to remove the Tom Cruise video from the Internet, the Church of Scientology est devenu a victim of the Streisand effect – a phenomenon whereby Attempts to suppress information on the Internet end up HAVING The opposite impact. [34]

Arbitration Committee

In January 2009, ” The Scientology of the Scientology Arbitration Committee”, “According to site administrators, several pro-Scientology accounts have been editing the site using Scientology-owned computers.” [35] The Arbitration Committee on Wikipedia is a group of volunteers elected by the editing community to resolve especially difficult conflicts. [36] [37] During the Arbitration Case, the page about Scientology was modified by members of the organization. [35] [38] Scientology members had to do this in order to advertise their cause. [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] [1] [2] [1] [1] [2] [2] The hedgehogs of the Soviet Union To continue editing Scientology articles from Scientology computers. ” [35] The Register quoted the “COFS” user as saying, “I am not going to leave voluntarily and I will continue to use a) my own computer, b) public computers, c) my wireless laptop, d) computers in the Church of Scientology and any station I please “. [35] The Guardian cited The Register , and noted,

In an effort to adhere to the Wikipedia policy , Wikipedia’s Arbitration Committee decided on May 28, 2009, [41] to restrict editing from Scientology organization IP addresses in order to prevent self-serving edits by editors within Church of Scientology-administered networks. [5] [42] The decision accorded Scientology-controlled IP addresses the same blockable status as open proxies on the site. [43] [44] [45] Ten members of the Arbitration Committee, [46] [47] [48] thus preventing such users from editing existing articles or creating new articles on the site. [49] Wikipedia on the web site. [50] The Arbitration Decision as the culmination of a “longstanding struggle” involving promoters of the organization and critics of its practices. [51] ABC Newsreported the conflict was “one of the longest-running disputes in Wikipedia’s history”. [8] The conflict involved over 400 articles within the topic of Scientology. [52] [53] It was the fourth such Arbitration Case before the Wikipedia’s Arbitration Committee on the topic of Scientology in the prior four years. [8] [54] [55] The case was drawn out for six months, Prior to the decision of the Arbitration Committee. [56]

The committee Ruled que la Scientology organization Had a responsibility to “ensure Appropriate use of ict servers and equipment”, [1] and pointed to a conflict of interest Involved with edits from Scientology-associated computers. [57] The block on IP addresses includes those originating from the Church of Scientology’s offices in Los Angeles , California ; [58] the organization additionally maintains headquarters in Clearwater , Florida. [12]

News.com.au reported, “According to evidence by Wikipedia, multiple users with known scientology IP addresses had been ‘openly editing (Scientology-related articles) from Church of Scientology equipment and apparently coordinating their activities’.” [59] Sky News Noted que le ban is Scientology computers Applies to “Any computer addresses” owned or operated ‘by the Church or associates linked to it. ” [60] Fox News Channel reported on the decision, “The encyclopedia’s administrators found that Scientology computers had been repeatedly changing more than 400 pages related to the Church, deleting negative references and adding positive ones.” The volume of changes was overwhelming administrators’ [62] Wired News reported that the ban on the Scientology organization was triggered by “repeated and deceptive editing of articles related to the controversial religion”. [63] The Los Angeles Times, “the church’s self-serving wiki-revisionism”. [64] Der Spiegel noted that skeptics have doubled the efficacy of the ban on the Scientology-controlled IP addresses, and commented on the likelihood of individuals creating multiple account names. [65]

A “host of anti-Scientologist editors” were banned by the arbitration committee. [5] [42] The committee Noted That an “aggravating factor” had been “the apparent presence of notable critics of Scientology, from Several Internet organizations Apparently editing under Their Own names and Citing Either Their Own gold Each Other’s self-published material . ” [5] The problem of the “worst casualties”. [5] [6]

Wikimedia comments

Wikimedia Foundation head of communications Jay Walsh emphasized the Arbitration decision was aimed at getting Scientology-related articles to an acceptable state on Wikipedia

Arbitration Committee member Roger Davies wrote the majority of the decision in the Scientology case. [7] Davies commented in an interview with The New York Times , “It was obvious that this case was going to be controversial pretty much from the start. Our fire at anyone in particular. ” [7] He noted there was a recurring pattern of disputed editing on controversial topics, “One of the issues we keep bumping into is what I call core belief issues – politics, religion, nationalism.” Fringe faiths, fringe nationalities. [7]

Wikimedia Foundation spokesman and head of communications, Jay Walsh, [9] stated the decision was focused on reducing hostility within the subject and getting articles back to an appropriate state. [66] Walsh emphasized to Bloomberg BusinessWeek which edits which serve the interests of organizations are acceptable, but must be within the procedure of “adding valuable context” to articles. [9] In a statement to The Wall Street Journal , Walsh said, “This is about people cutting the hostility around the topic, and getting the articles back to a state where they make sense. That Wikipedians have to be neutral on all accounts and all fronts. T take these situations lightly. Are they censoring people or individuals? [67] When asked by Ross Reynolds of National Public Radio Affiliate KUOW-FM for the Arbitration Decision Scientology “, Walsh answered,” So the simple answer is that those edits were coming from, the decision is that ultimately most of the edits within those ranges have been from single-user-accounts, people who have A single intention to change or move in some cases remove information, which could be considered censorship, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia And this is an effort to kind of calm that effect, and to bring some neutrality and some quality back to these articles. ” [68]

Wikipedia media contact, Dan Rosenthal, stated to ABC News , “Scientology is up there among the most controversial on Wikipedia. . ” [8] Rosenthal commented, “You could have a conflict of interest Rather than two unrelated people getting together,” promoters of the Scientology organization were “getting together, saying, ‘Let’s work together to make this a pro- Scientology article. ‘ ” [8] Rosenthal noted that” it is a standard practice to banish people who have committed a crime against humanity. ” [69] [70] Rosenthal said that approximately 300 users are blocked or banned per day from Wikipedia in order to stop vandalism, or for violating regulations created to prevent propaganda. [71] Catrin Schoneville, spokesperson for Wikimedia Germany, stated to Computerwoche that the decision impacted the English Wikipedia version, and it was unknown whether a similar decision in the German Wikipedia site. [10] Spokesperson for Wikimedia Germany, stated to Computerwoche that the decision impacted the English Wikipedia version, and it was unknown whether a similar decision in the future would be applied to the German Wikipedia site. [10] Spokesperson for Wikimedia Germany, stated to Computerwochethat the decision impacted the English Wikipedia version, and it was unknown whether a similar decision in the future would be applied to the German Wikipedia site. [10]

Scientology statements

Scientology spokeswoman, Karin Pouw , stated of the Wikipedia Arbitration decision, “Do Scientologists care about what’s going on in Wikipedia?” Some of it has been very hateful and erroneous. [72] Pouw commented, “We hope all this will result in more accurate and useful articles on Wikipedia.” [60] The Commission’s decision on a “routine internal action by Wikipedia to clean up its editing process”. [73] Pouw emphasized, “More importantly is the fact that Wikipedia finally banned those who were engaged in unobjective and biased editing for the purposes of antagonism as opposed to accurate information.” [2] [74] Pouw commented to ABC News , “People have conflicts on Wikipedia all the time, and it’s obvious why – anybody can post.” [8] Bloomberg Businessweek reported on Pouw’s statements, “[Pouw] says her organization regularly monitors the Internet for wrong information about her belief system and members. She hopes that she will be able to do what she wants to do. ” [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw asserted “she is unaware of any coordinated effort to alter Wikipedia”. [11] And it’s obvious why – anybody can post. ” [8] Bloomberg Businessweek reported on Pouw’s statements,” [Pouw] says her organization regularly monitors the Internet for wrong information about its belief system and members. After this ruling, Pouw says there remain ‘gross inaccuracies’ on the Scientology article on Wikipedia that she hopes will eventually be corrected. Aim for the time being white, her group’s Ability to Do That-have-been Weakened. ” [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw Asserted” she is unaware of Coordinated Any attempt to alter Wikipedia “. [11] And it’s obvious why – anybody can post. ” [8] Bloomberg Businessweek reported on Pouw’s statements,” [Pouw] says her organization regularly monitors the Internet for wrong information about its belief system and members. After this ruling, Pouw says there remain ‘gross inaccuracies’ on the Scientology article on Wikipedia that she hopes will eventually be corrected. Aim for the time being white, her group’s Ability to Do That-have-been Weakened. ” [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw Asserted” she is unaware of Coordinated Any attempt to alter Wikipedia “. [11] [Pouw] says her organization regularly monitors the Internet for wrong information about its belief system and members. After this ruling, Pouw says there remain ‘gross inaccuracies’ on the Scientology article on Wikipedia that she hopes will eventually be corrected. [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw asserted “she is unaware of any coordinated effort to alter Wikipedia.” [11] [Pouw] says her organization regularly monitors the Internet for wrong information about its belief system and members. After this ruling, Pouw says there remain ‘gross inaccuracies’ on the Scientology article on Wikipedia that she hopes will eventually be corrected. [9] In a statement to CNN , Pouw asserted “she is unaware of any coordinated effort to alter Wikipedia.” [11]

Tommy Davis , a representative of the Scientology organization, told the St. Petersburg Times that members of the organization were attempting to correct what they perceived as factual inaccuracies: “The story that was being missed was Church and using Wikipedia to do it. Those people have been banned. ” [12] Davis denied that Scientology leadership has been manipulated on Wikipedia. He asserted, “The church is huge … Scientologists are going to say what they’re going to say about their own religion.” [12]

Reception

Sociologist Stephen A. Kentcommented on ABC News about the Arbitration Decision

Writing in the 2009 book Scientology , contributor Mikael Rothstein commented positively about the Wikipedia article on ” Xenu “, “The most sober and enlightening text about the Xenu myth is probably the anonymous article on Wikipedia …” [75] Writing about Scientology in Her 2010 book Insiders’ Guide to the Greater Tampa Bay Area , author Anne W. Anderson noted, “In May 2009, Wikipedia … [76] In an August 2009 article for TIME , titled “A Brief History of Wikipedia”, journalist Dan Fletcher noted, “In May,

Stephen Colbert Discussed the Arbitration decision On His comedy program The Colbert Report [78] Colbert commented, “Folks, I think this is the worst tragedy to befall Scientologists, since galactic overlord Xenu stacked trillion of frozen people around volcanoes qui he detonated with hydrogen bombs . ” [78] [79]

In an interview with ABC News , sociologist of the University of Alberta , Stephen A. Kent commented, “Historically, Scientology has tried to control what critics say about it.” The Internet, however, has posed insurmountable problems regarding control and censorship and Wikipedia’s action Scientology is a science-based science and technology company that has been working on the science of science and technology for more than a decade. [8] Evgeny Morozov of Foreign Policy wrote a blog post critical of the Arbitration Decision, and stated, “I am no fan of Scientology, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Unfortunately, it presents the Wikipedia admins / editors as a non-neutral group that opposes a particular set of ideas. ” [80] In an August 2010 article in The Guardian , journalists Rachel Shabi and Jemima Kiss observed, Editors can remain anonymous Wikipedia’s arbitration committee. Scientology was a regular source of conflict until the committee blocked editing by the movement. ” [81] Journalists Rachel Shabi and Jemima Kiss observed, “Editors can remain anonymous when changing content, but conflicts are passed to Wikipedia’s arbitration committee.” [81] Journalists Rachel Shabi and Jemima Kiss observed, “Editors can remain anonymous when changing content, but conflicts are passed to Wikipedia’s arbitration committee.” [81]

See also

  • Internet portal
  • Scientology portal
  • List of Guardian’s Office operations
  • Operation Clambake
  • Operation Freakout
  • Operation Snow White
  • Scieno Sitter
  • Scientology and the legal system
  • Scientology controversies

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b Moore, Matthew (May 30, 2009). “Church of Scientology members banned from Wikipedia editing” . The Daily Telegraph. London: www.telegraph.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Religion News Service (June 6, 2009). “Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology from editing entries”. Long Beach Press-Telegram . p. 3.
  3. ^ Jump up to:c Brown, Mick (October 28, 2006). “Wiki’s world” . The Daily Telegraph . London: www.telegraph.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  4. ^ Jump up to:c Lischka, Konrad; Frank Patalong; Christian Stöcker (August 16, 2007). “Wiki-Scanner spürt Manipulationen auf” . Der Spiegel (in German). Www.spiegel.de . Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  5. ^ Jump up to:e Shea, Danny (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia Bans Scientology From Site” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved 2009-05-29 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b “Wikipedia bars Church of Scientology” . The Age . Australia : www.theage.com.au. May 31, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:d Cohen, Noam (June 8, 2009). “The Wars of Words on Wikipedia’s Outskirts” . The New York Times . The New York Times Company . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  8. ^ Jump up to:h Heussner, Ki Mae; Ned Potter (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia Blocks Church of Scientology From Editing Entries” . ABC News . ABC . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:e MacMillan, Douglas (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia referees Scientology debate” . Bloomberg Businessweek . Www.businessweek.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:b “Wikipedia schließt Scientology-Autoren aus” . Computerwoche (in German). www.computerwoche.de. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  11. ^ Jump up to:b Finley-Price, Wes (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology” . CNN . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:d Brassfield, Mike (May 30, 2009). “Wikipedia shuts down Scientology editors”. St. Petersburg Times . p. 1B.
  13. ^ Jump up to:f “Wikipedia bans Scientology in propaganda row”. The Guardian . Guardian Newspapers Ltd. May 29, 2009.
  14. ^ Jump up to:e Lippard, Jim; Jeff Jacobsen (1995). “Scientology v. The Internet: Free Speech & Copyright Infringement on the Super-Highway Information” . Skeptic . 3 (3): 35-41 . Retrieved 2010-09-04 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:e Streeter, Michael (2008). Behind Closed Doors: The Power and Influence of Secret Societies . New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. pp. 212, 218-219. ISBN  1-84537-937-3 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:c Leyden, Josh (January 25, 2008). “Critics split over DDoS attacks on Scientology – Xenu phobia” . The Register . Www.channelregister.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-09-04 .
  17. Jump up^ Whinston, Andrew B .; Dale O. Stahl; Soon-Yong Choi (1997). The Economics of Electronic Commerce . MacMillan Publishing Company. p. 57. ISBN  1-57870-014-0 .
  18. ^ Jump up to:c Godwin, Mike (2003). Cyber ​​Rights: Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age . Cambridge , Massachusetts: The MIT Press. pp. 209-220. ISBN  0-262-57168-4 .
  19. Jump up^ Grossman, Wendy M. (December 1995). “Alt.scientology.war”. Wired . www.wired.com. 3 (12) . Retrieved 2010-09-04 . Alternate link
  20. Jump up^ Taylor, Ramona Leigh (Spring 2000). “Praying for Relief: The Impact of Secular Organizations on Internet and Trademark Law”. Richmond Journal of Law and Technology . University of Richmond School of Law : Williams School of Law University of Richmond. 6 (26). There are a number of Scientology versus Internet cases, which include Religious Tech. Ctr. v. FACT Net, Inc., 901 F. Supp. 1519 (D. Colo, 1995); Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom Online Comm. Serv., 923 F. Supp 1231 (1995); See also Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom Online Communications (visited Jan. 20, 2000) < http://www.netlaw.com/cases/netcom.htm >; Religious Tech. Ctr. v. FACT Net, Inc. (visited Jan. 20, 2000) < http: //www.loundy.com/CASES/RTC_v_FACTnet.html >; See also Eugene A. Burcher & Anna M. Hughes, Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom Online Comm. Serv: Internet Service Providers: The Knowledge Standard for Contributory Copyright Infringement and the Fair Use Defense, 3 RICH. JL TECH. 5 (1997) < http://www.richmond.edu/ [approximately] jolt / v3il / burhugh.html>.
  21. Jump up^ Grossman, Wendy M. (October 23, 2009). “Net.wars: The power of Twitter – It was the best of mobs, it was the worst of mobs.” . Newswireless.net . Www.newswireless.net . Retrieved 2010-09-04.
  22. ^ Jump up to:b Zittrain, Jonathan (2009). The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It . Yale University Press . p. 135. ISBN  0-300-15124-1 .
  23. Jump up^ Arthur, Charles (December 15, 2005). “Log on and join in, but beware the web cults” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  24. ^ Jump up to:b Bjerga, Alan ( McClatchy Newspapers ) (August 22, 2006). “Wikipedia new front for political foes”. The Charlotte Observer . North Carolina . p. 1A.
  25. Jump up^ Vallely, Paul (October 18, 2006). “Do we need a more reliable online encyclopedia than Wikipedia?”. The Independent . Financial Times Information Limited.
  26. Jump up^ Deflem, Mathieu (Editor) (2008). Surveillance and Governance: Crime Control and Beyond . JAI Press. p. 268. ISBN  0-7623-1416-8 .
  27. Jump up^ Collins, Dan (August 16, 2007). “Changing Reality With A Mouse Click” . CBS News . CBS . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  28. Jump up^ Verkaik, Robert (August 18, 2007). “Wikipedia and the art of censorship” . The Independent . Www.independent.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  29. Jump up^ Blakely, Rhys (August 16, 2007). “Wal-Mart, CIA, ExxonMobil Changed Wikipedia Entries” . The Times . Fox News Channel . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  30. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (July 19, 2008). “The Wiki-Hacker Strikes Again” . Forbes . Www.forbes.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  31. ^ Jump up to:b Agger, Michael (August 24, 2007). “Wikipedia Unmasked”. Slate . The Washington Post Company .
  32. Jump up^ “Church vs slate”. Messenger – Eastern Courier . Adelaide , Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited. July 9, 2008. p. 023.
  33. Jump up^ “Scientology: Fair game – An online onslaught against Scientology”. The Economist . The Economist Newspaper Limited. February 2, 2008. p. 52.
  34. Jump up^ Morozov, Evgeny (December 26, 2008). “Free speech and the Internet: Living with the Streisand Effect” . The New York Times. The New York Times Company . Retrieved 2010-09-28 .
  35. ^ Jump up to:d Metz, Cade (January 9, 2009). ” ‘ Lord of the Universe’ disciple exits Wikipedia – Scientologists’ . The Register . Www.theregister.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  36. Jump up^ “Wikipedia takes up Scientology”. Richmond Times-Dispatch . Richmond Newspapers, Inc. June 14, 2009. p. A-19.
  37. Jump up^ Associated Press (June 10, 2009). “Religion news in brief” . The Guardian . London: www.guardian.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  38. Jump up^ “Wikipedia chiudes the door to Scientology” . BitCity (in Italian). www.bitcity.it. May 31, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  39. Jump up^ “Wikipedia sperrt Scientology aus” . Computer Bild (in German). www.computerbild.de. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  40. Jump up^ Fitzsimmons, Caitlin (May 30, 2009). “Internet: Wikipedia acts to stop Scientology ‘edit-warring ‘ “. The Guardian . Guardian Newspapers Ltd.
  41. Jump up^ Singel, Ryan (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia Bans Church of Scientology” . Wired News . Www.wired.com . Retrieved 2010-08-28 .
  42. ^ Jump up to:b Metz, Cade (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology” . The Register . Retrieved 2009-05-29 .
  43. Jump up^ Fitzsimmons, Caitlin (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology from editing” . The Guardian . London: Guardian News and Media Limited . Retrieved 2010-08-28 .
  44. Jump up^ “Wikipedia sperrt Zugriff für Scientology-Mitgliede” . Big-screen.de (in German). www.big-screen.de. May 29, 2009. Archived from the original on December 21, 2010 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  45. Jump up^ “Wikipedia sperrt Scientology aus” . Golem.de (in German). www.golem.de. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  46. Jump up^ “Scientology messa al bando da Wikipedia” . Il Gazzettino (in Italian). www.gazzettino.it. June 2, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  47. Jump up^ Falco, Nico (June 1, 2009). “Scientology bannata da Wikipedia” . Julie News (in Italian). Www.julienews.it . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  48. Jump up^ Mandelli, Lamberto (June 2, 2009). “La Chiesa di Scientology and Wikipedia ai ferri corti” . Macity (in Italian). Www.macitynet.it. Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  49. Jump up^ “Wikipedia censura Scientology” . The Stampa (in Italian). www.lastampa.it. June 1, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  50. Jump up^ “Church of Scientology krijgt Wikipedia ban – Spotlight” . Excite.nl (in Dutch). spotlight.excite.nl. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  51. Jump up^ Chapman, Glenn (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia blocks Scientology from altering entries” . Agence France-Presse . France . Retrieved 2010-08-24 . Alternate linkArchivedMay 31, 2009, at theWayback Machine.
  52. Jump up^ “Wikipedia blokkeert Scientology-schrijvers” . Nederlands Dagblad (in Dutch). May 30, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  53. Jump up^ Shaer, Matthew (June 1, 2009). “Wikipedia bans edits to its Scientology pages. . Christian Science Monitor . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  54. Jump up^ “Wikipedia mette al bando Scientology” . Barimia (in Italian). www.barimia.info. June 1, 2009. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  55. Jump up^ Tosatto, Marco (May 30, 2009). ” ” Wiki “esclude Scientology”. The Stampa (in Italian). www.lastampa.it. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  56. Jump up^ Linthicum, Kate (June 5, 2009). “Wikipedia blocks access from Church of Scientology in LA” . Los Angeles Times . California : articles.latimes.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  57. Jump up^ “Wikipedia bans Scientology edits” . United Press International . www.upi.com. May 31, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  58. Jump up^ Associated Press (June 27, 2009). “Scientology, critics banned from editing Wikipedia entry” . Youngstown Vindicator . Www.vindy.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  59. Jump up^ Rakowski, Ian (May 29, 2009). “Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology from site” . News.com.au . Australia : www.news.com.au . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  60. ^ Jump up to:b “Wikipedia To Block Edits By Scientologists” . Sky News . United Kingdom : news.sky.com. May 30, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  61. ^ Jump up to:b “Wikipedia Blocks Church of Scientology From Editing Pages” . Fox News Channel . Fox Television Stations, Inc. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 . Dead link ] alternate link
  62. Jump up^ “Wikipedia to Scientologists: Edit this, suckers” . InfoWorld . www.infoworld.com. June 1, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  63. Jump up^ John C, Abell (August 25, 2009). “Wikipedia Will Screen Changes on Articles About Living People” . Wired News . Www.wired.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  64. Jump up^ Dan, Neil (July 28, 2009). “Scientology mounts a PR pushback” . Los Angeles Times . California : articles.latimes.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  65. Jump up^ “Verbannt: Wikipedia sperrt Scientology-Autoren aus” . Spiegel Online (in German). www.spiegel.de. May 29, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  66. Jump up^ “Wikipedia udelukker Scientology” . Kristeligt Dagblad (in Dutch). www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk. June 2, 2009 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  67. Jump up^ Taylor, Marisa (June 1, 2009). “Wikipedia Bans Scientology Church’s Edits” . The Wall Street Journal . Wsj.com . Retrieved 2010-09-04 .
  68. Jump up^ Reynolds, Ross (June 1, 2009). “Wikipedia and Scientology” . KUOW-FM . www.kuow.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13 . Retrieved 2010-09-04 .
  69. Jump up^ “Wikipedia Blocks War Of Words”. The Post and Courier . Evening Post Publishing Company . June 14, 2009. p. 3F.
  70. Jump up^ Associated Press (June 11, 2009). “Wikipedia-Scientology: Scientology, critics banned from editing Wikipedia entry” . KXMD . www.kxnet.com. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011 . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  71. Jump up^ “Wikipedia clamps down on Scientology postings”. San Jose Mercury News . June 6, 2009. p. 3C.
  72. Jump up^ “Wikipedia bans Scientology edits”. Sunday Herald Sun . Melbourne, Australia: Nationwide News Pty Limited. May 31, 2009. p. 034.
  73. Jump up^ Linthicum, Kate (June 4, 2009). “Wikipedia Blocks Dozens of Users in Scientology Dispute”. Los Angeles Times .
  74. Jump up^ “Scientology, critics banned from editing Wikipedia entry”. The Grand Rapids Press . June 13, 2009. p. C2.
  75. Jump up^ Rothstein, Mikael (2009), ” ‘ His Name Was Xenu … He used renegades..’ – aspects of Scientology’s Founding Myth”, in Lewis, James R. , Scientology , Oxford University Press, USA , p. 371,ISBN  0-19-533149-4
  76. Jump up^ Anderson, Anne W. (2010). Insiders’ Guide to the Greater Tampa Bay Area: Including Tampa, St. Petersburg, & Clearwater . Insiders’ Guide. pp. 290-291. ISBN  0-7627-5347-1 .
  77. Jump up^ Fletcher, Dan (August 18, 2009). “A Brief History of Wikipedia”. TIME . Www.time.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  78. ^ Jump up to:b Colbert, Stephen (June 4, 2009). “Wikipedia Bans Scientologists – Wikipedia bans Scientologists after finding Tom Cruise’s listing listing him 5’10” . The Colbert Report . Www.colbertnation.com . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  79. Jump up^ Orlowski, Andrew (June 5, 2009). “Colbert salutes El Reg” . The Register . Www.theregister.co.uk . Retrieved 2010-08-24 .
  80. Jump up^ Morozov, Evgeny (May 29, 2009). “Why Wikipedia was wrong to ban Scientology” . Foreign Policy . neteffect.foreignpolicy.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2011 . Retrieved 2010-08-28 .
  81. Jump up^ Shabi, Rachel; Jemima Kiss (August 18, 2010). “Wikipedia editing courses launched by Zionist groups” . The Guardian . London: Guardian News and Media Limited . Retrieved 2010-08-30 .

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