[3] Wikipedia is the largest and most popular reference on the Internet [4] [5] [6] and is ranked among the most popular websites. [7] Wikipedia is owned by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation . [8] [9] [10]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger . [11] Sanger coined its name , [12] [13] a portmanteau of wiki [notes 4] and encyclo pedia . There was only the English-language version initially, but it soon developed similar versions in other languages, which differ in content and in editing practices. With 5,442,499 articles , [notes 5] the English Wikipedia is the largest of the 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias. Overall, Wikipedia consists of more than 40 million articles in more than 250 different languages [15] and, as of February 2014 , it had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors each month. [16]

As of March 2017, HAS Wikipedia about forty thousand high-quality products Known As Featured Articles and Good Products That cover vital topics. [17] [18] In 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia, and found that Wikipedia’s level of accuracy of Encyclopædia Britannica . [19]

Wikipedia has been criticized for allegedly exhibiting systemic bias , presenting a mixture of “truths, half truths, and some falsehoods”, [20] and, in controversial topics, being subject to manipulation and spin . [21]

History

Nupedia

Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were successful. [22]

Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia , a free online English-language encyclopedia. [11] Nupedia was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis , a web portal company. His main figures were Jimmy Wales , the CEO of Bomis, and Larry Sanger , editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, switching to the GNU Free Documentation License before Wikipedia ‘ S founding at the urging of Richard Stallman . [23] Sanger and Wales founded Wikipedia. [24] [25] While Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, [26] [27] Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. [28] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia. [29] [26] [27] Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. [28] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia. [29] [26] [27] Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. [28] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia. [29]ikipedia according to Simpleshow

Launch and early growth

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com, [30] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list. [26]Wikipedia’s policy of “neutral point-of-view” [31] was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there have been some rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. [26] Originally, Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit. [32]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. By August 8, 2001, Wikipedia had over 8,000 articles. [33] On September 25, 2001, Wikipedia had over 13,000 articles. [34] By the end of 2001, it had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions. It Had atteint 26 language editions by late 2002, 46 by the end of 2003 and 161 by the final days of 2004. [35] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted up to the train’s servers Were taken down Permanently in 2003 and Its text Was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia has passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, Surpassing even the 1408 Yongle Encyclopedia , which had held the record for almost 600 years. [36]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked from Wikipedia to create the free enciclopedia in February 2002. [37] These moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia’s Wikipedia’s domain From wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org . [38]

Though the English Wikipedia has reached a million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in appearing in the numbers of articles and of contributors, appeared to have peaked around early 2007. [39] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia 2006; By Renault. [40] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project’s increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. [41] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because it could be called ” low-hanging fruit ” -topics that clearly merit an article-have already been created and extensively extensively. [42] [43] [44]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid ( Spain ) found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; In comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008. [45] [46] The Wall Street Journal . [47] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the methodology of the study. [48] Two years later, in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a “little more than 36,000 writers” in June 2010 to 35, 800 in June 2011. In the same interview, Wales also claimed the number of editors was “stable and sustainable”. [49] A 2013 article titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” in MIT’s Technology Review questioned this claim. The article revealed that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of the volunteer editors who update and correct the online encyclopedia and those still there have been increasingly on minutiae. [50] In July 2012, the Atlantic reported that the number of administrators is also in decline. [51] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated “Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis.” [52]

Milestones

In January 2007, Wikipedia entered for the first time the most popular websites in the US, according to comScore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, Wikipedia was ranked number 9, overpassing the New York Times (# 10) and Apple (# 11). This mark has a significant increase over January 2006, when the rank was number 33, with Wikipedia receiving around 18.3 million unique visitors. [53] As of March 2015 , Wikipedia has rank 5 [7] [54] among websites in terms of popularity according to Alexa Internet . In 2014, it received 8 billion pageviews every month. [55] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia has 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, “according to the ratings firm comScore.” [16]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against the United States Congress-the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA) -by blacking out its pages for 24 Hours . [56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily released Wikipedia content. [57] [58]

Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that accumulated improvements piecemeal through ” stigmergicaccumulation”. [59] [60]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for the Economic Times reported that it had only had its last 10 per cent of its page-views last year. December 2013. Its most popular versions are the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by 12 per cent, those of German version slid by 17 per cent and the Japanese version lost 9 per cent. ” [61] Varma added that, “While Wikipedia’s managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google’s Knowledge Graphics project may last gobbling up Wikipedia users.” [61] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and a fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Security, said, “If you can get your question answered from the search page, You do not need to click [any further]. ” [61]

By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked fifth in the most popular websites globally. [62]

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, which? ] Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle [notes 6] [64] regarding the security of its content. [64] It started almost entirely open-anyone could create articles, and any Wikipedia article could be edited by any reader, even those who did not have a Wikipedia account. Modifications to all articles would be published immediately. As a result, any article could contain inaccuracies such as errors, ideological biases, and nonsensical or irrelevant text.

restrictions

Due to the popularity of Wikipedia, popular editions, including the English version, have some editing restrictions in some cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article. [65] On the English Wikipedia, among others, most controversial, sensitive and / or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to some degree. [66] [67] A frequently vandalized article can be semi-protected or extended confirmed , meaning that only autoconfirmed or extended confirmededitors are able to modify it. [68] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators are able to make changes. [69]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains “stable versions” of articles, [70] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the “pending changes” system in December 2012. [71] Under this system, new and unregistered users’ edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone published. [72]

The editing interface of Wikipedia

Review of changes

Wikipedia has a number of articles on this subject. The “History” page of each article links to each revision. [Notes 7] [73] On most articles, anyone can undo others’ changes by clicking a link on the article’s history page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone can maintain a “watchlist” of articles that interest them so they can be notified of any changes. “New pages patrol” is a process whereby newly created items are checked for obvious problems. [74]

In 2003 economics PhD student Andrea Ciffolilli argued que la low transaction costs of participante in a wiki create a catalyst for collaborative development, and That features Such As Allowing easy access to past versions of a page favor “creative building” over “creative destruction” . [75]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Wikipedia is considered to be vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor. Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam. [76]Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information to an article, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the title or categorization, manipulate the underlying code of an article, or use images disruptively. [77]

American journalist John Seigenthaler (1927-2014), subject of the Seigenthaler incident

Obvious vandalism is easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; The median time to detect and fix vandalism is a few minutes. [78] [79] However, some vandalism takes much longer to repair. [80]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident , an anonymous editor in the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005. Seigenthaler was falsely presented as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. [80] The article remained uncorrected for four months. [80] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of the United States of America and the Founder of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University , called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales. Wales replied that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced. [81] [82] After the incident, Seigenthaler describes Wikipedia as “a flawed and irresponsible research tool”. [80] This incident led to changes at Wikipedia, specifically targeted at tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people . [83]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the Laws (In Particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia , Where the majorité of Wikipedia’s servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are incorporated in the “five pillars” and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even the rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website’s policies and guidelines. [84] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent. [70]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia has a free encyclopedia and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-like. [85] A topic should also meet Wikipedia’s standards of “notability” , [86] which is the subject matter of the article. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized. [87] It must not present original research . A claim that is likely to be challenged to a reliable source . Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as ” [88] This can be done to the removal of information that is valid. [89] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides. [90] All opinions and viewpoints, if attributable to external sources, must enjoy an appropriate share of coverage within an article. [91] This is known as neutral point of view (NPOV). [88] This can be done to the removal of information that is valid. [89] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides. [90] All opinions and viewpoints, if attributable to external sources, must enjoy an appropriate share of coverage within an article. [91] This is known as neutral point of view (NPOV).

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia: Administration

Wikipedia’s initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time. [92] [93] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor and is not vetted by any recognized authority. [94] Wikipedia’s contributors avoid a tragedy of the commons by internalizing benefits. They do this by experiencing flow and Identifying with and Gaining status in the Wikipedia community. [95]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: this begins with ” administrator “, [96] [97] privileged users who can delete pages, prevent articles from being changed in case of vandalism or editorial disputes , And try to prevent certain persons from editing. Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; (Such as vandalism). The term “vandalism” is used to refer to a person who is a victim of a crime against humanity. [98] [99]

Fewer editors become administrators in later years, in part because of the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous. [100]

Bureaucrats name new administrators, solely on the recommendations from the community.

Dispute resolution

Often-have Wikipedians dispute Regarding happy qui May result in making Repeatedly opposite to exchange an item, Known As edit warring [101] [102] Over time, Wikipedia HAS Developed a semi-formal dispute resolution process to assist in Such Circumstances. In order to determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at Appropriate community forums, [note 8] or seek outside input through third requests opinion or by initiating event has more general community discussions Known As a request for comment .

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes arise from a disagreement between two opposing views, the Arbitration Committee should explicitly refuse to take a decision. [Edit] References [ edit] References [edit] References Wikipedia has an article on: In to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violations Wikipedia policies (for example, If the new content is considered biased ). Its remedies include bail and probation (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from products (43%), subject matters (23%) or Wikipedia (16%). Complete bans from Wikipedia to the limitations of impersonation and anti-social behavior . When conducting is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings. [104] Complete bans from Wikipedia to the limitations of impersonation and anti-social behavior . When conducting is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings. [104] Complete bans from Wikipedia to the limitations of impersonation and anti-social behavior . When conducting is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings. [104]

Community

Video of Wikimedia 2005 – an annual conference for users of Wikipedia and other projects operated by the Wikimedia Foundation , was held in Frankfurt am Main , Germany from August 4 to 8.

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated “Talk” page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate. [105]

Wikipedians and British Museumcurators on Hoxne Hoard in June 2010

Wikipedia’s community has been described as cult -like, [106] though not always with negative connotations. [107] The project’s preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials , has been referred to as ” anti-elitism “. [108]

Wikipedians sometimes a barnstars for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work. [109]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification. [110] As Wikipedia grew, “Who writes Wikipedia?” …………… The questions asked frequently on the project. [111] Jimmy Wales, “a community of a few hundred volunteers” makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and so the project is “much like any traditional organization”. [112] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: “According to researchers in Palo Alto, 1 percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site’s edits.” [113] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz , Who have had a large portion of their content (contributed by users with low edit counts. [114]

The English Wikipedia has 5,442,499 articles, 31,365,577 registered editors, and 116,282 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past thirty days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia Wikipedia is a Wikipedia article about the Wikipedia article “Outsiders”. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a “baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references”. [115] Editors Who do not log in are in Some sense second-class citoyens is Wikipedia, [115] as “participants are accredited by members of the Wiki community, Who-have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, it The basis of their ongoing participation “,

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that “anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia […] [117] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that “(I) t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users … 524 people … And in fact the most active 2% Which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits. ” [112]HOWEVER, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget Showed in 2009 That in a random sample of items, Most happy in Wikipedia (Measured by the amount of Contributed text That survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by “outsiders” While most editing and formatting is done by “insiders”. [112]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others, [118] [119] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, Were the samples. [120] According to a 2009 study, there is “evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content”. [121]

Diversity

One of the most important contributors to the Wikipedia article was “the barely 13% women, the average age of a contributor was in the mid-20s.” [122] A 2011 study by Researchers from the University of Minnesota found That females comprised 16.1% of the 38.497 editors Who started editing Wikipedia During 2009. [123] In a January 2011 New York Times article, Noam Cohen Observed That just 13% of Wikipedia’s contributors are female according to a 2008 Wikimedia Foundation survey. [124] Sue Gardner , executive director a form of the Wikimedia Foundation, Hoped to see female contributions to Increase 25% by 2015. [125] Linda Basch, president of the National Council for Research on Women, In the United States of America and the United States of America. [126]

In response, various universities have hosted edit-a-thons to encourage more women to participate in the Wikipedia community. In college and university – including Yale, Brown, and Pennsylvania State – offered college credit for students to “write feminist thinking” about technology into Wikipedia. [127] Estimates of the diversity of contributors by educational level have sixty-two percent of Wikipedia’s editors at the high school and undergraduate college level of education. [128]

In August 2014, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales said in a BBC interview that the Wikimedia Foundation was “… really doubling down our efforts …” to reach 25% of female editors Had “totally failed” so far. Wales said “a lot of software changes”. [129] Andrew Lih, writing in The New York Times , was quoted by Bloomberg News in December 2016 as supporting Wales comments about shortfalls in Wikipedia’s outreach to female editors. Lih states his concern with the question indicating that: “How can you get people to participate in an environment that feels unsafe,

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

There are currently 295 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions , or simply Wikipedia ). Thirteen of These-have over one million items each ( English , Swedish , Cebuano , German , Dutch , French, Russian , Italian , Spanish , Waray language , Polish , Vietnamese and Japanese ), five more-have over 500,000 items ( Portuguese , Chinese , Ukrainian , Catalan and Persian ), 40 more have over 100,000 items, and 77 more have over 10,000 items. [131] [132] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] 000 articles, and 77 more have over 10,000 articles. [131] [132] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain(en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] 000 articles, and 77 more have over 10,000 articles. [131] [132] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] 000 articles. [131] [132] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] 000 articles. [131] [132] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] The English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] The English Wikipedia, has over 5.4 million articles. As of January 2017 , according to Alexa, the English subdomain (en.wikipedia.org, English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. Spanish: 6%; French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split between the other languages ​​(Russian: 9%, Japanese: 7%, French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] English Wikipedia) about 55% of Wikipedia’s cumulative traffic, with the remaining split between the other languages ​​(Russian: 9%, Japanese: 7%, French: 4%). [7] As of July 2017, the six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] The six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133] The six largest language editions are in English , Cebuano , Swedish , German , Dutch , and French Wikipedias. [133]

Distribution of the 45,545,024 articles in different language editions (as of 16 July 2017) [134]

  English (11.9%)
  Cebuano (10.7%)
  Swedish (8.3%)
  German (4.6%)
  Dutch (4.2%)
  French (4.1%)
  Russian (3.1%)
  Italian (3%)
  Spanish (3%)
  Waray (2.8%)
  Polish (2.7%)
  Vietnamese (2.5%)
  Japanese (2.3%)
  Portuguese (2.1%)
  Other (34.7%)
Logarithmic graph of the 20 largest language editions of Wikipedia
(as of 16 July 2017) [135]
(millions of articles)
0.1 0.3 1 3
English 5,442,499
Cebuano 4,884,325
Swedish 3,789,770
German 2,080,711
Dutch 1,906,420
French 1,889,127
Russian 1,408,025
Italian 1,370,709
Spanish 1,344,215
Waray 1,262,776
Polish 1,231,884
Vietnamese 1,158,853
Japanese 1,068,266
Portuguese 973,722
Chinese 952,210
Ukrainian 706,974
Persian 569,045
Catalan 548,037
Arabic 531,042
Norwegian 471,852

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

A graph for pageviews of Turkish Wikipedia has a large drop of roughly 80% immediately after the 2017 block of Wikipedia in Turkey was imposed.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and so worldwide, it is possible to translate the dialects into English . These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences(eg color versus color ) [136] or points of view. [137]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as “neutral point of view”, they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on images which are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use . [138] [139] [140]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as “an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language”. [141] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation’s Wikipedia and others. [142] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia, [143] and every Wikipedia should have. [144] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. As for the rest, it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States.

Wikipedia projects. 

Estimation of contributions from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions

Translated articles are only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because fully automated translation of articles is disallowed. [145] Articles available in more than one language may ” interwiki links “, which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.

A study published by PLoS ONE in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It Reported que la proportion of the edits made from North America Was 51% for the English Wikipedia , and 25% for the single English Wikipedia . [146] The Wikimedia Foundation hopes to increase the number of editors in the Global South to 37% by 2015. [147]

On March 1, 2014, The Economist in an article titled “The Future of Wikipedia” has been published by Wikimedia. ” [148] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as Wikipedia in other languages ​​(non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with a mean of more than one edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The attrition rates for editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparisons, were cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 editors, which has dropped to 30,000 editors as of the start of 2014. At the quoted trend rate, the number of active editors in English Wikipedia has lost approximately 20,000 editors to attrition since 2007, and the documented trend rate indicates the loss of another 20,000 editors by 2021, down to 10,000 active editors on English Wikipedia by 2021 if left unabated. [148] Given that the trend analysis in the Economist presents the number of active editors for Wikipedia in other languages ​​(non-English Wikipedia) 42,000 active editors, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search [148] Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia [149] [148] Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia [149] [148] Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikipedia has an article on: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [149]

Critical reception

Several Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia’s extensive and extensive regulation , which includes over 50 policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014 . [150] [151]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias . Columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticizes Wikipedia for being a mixture of “truth, half truth, and some falsehoods”. [20] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and the Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia’s Undue Weight Policy, concluding that the Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on the major viewpoints on The subject and give less attention to minor ones, creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information. [152] [153 ]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black, edited by the editor. [20] [155] An article in Education Next Journal that has a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is notoriously subject to manipulation and spin . [21]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed Dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia. [156]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are carefully and deliberately written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy. [157] Conversely, Wikipedia is often cited for factual inaccuracies and misrepresentations by whom? ] . HOWEVER, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on Both Wikipedia and Encyclopaedia Britannica by the science magazine Nature found FEW differences in accuracy, and Concluded That “the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica , about three. ” [19] Reagle suggested that while the study reflects ” for comparison), lack of statistical analysis (eg, of Reported confidence intervals ), and a Lack of study “statistical power” (ie, owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 10 1 items Compared vs> 10 5 and> 10 6 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively). [162]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia “makes no guarantee of validity” of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it. [163] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users’ anonymity, [164] the insertion of false information, [165] vandalism , and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: “If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed newspaper article on economics was more likely to be true, I would opt for Wikipedia.” He comments that some sources of non-fiction suffer from a system of biases and novel results, in his opinion, are published. However, it is important to be aware of the fact that they should be vigilant in correcting them. [166]

Critics argue that Wikipedia’s open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable. [167] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear. [168] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project’s utility and status as an encyclopedia. [169]

Wikipedia’s open structure inherently year Makes It Easy target for Internet trolls , spammers , and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the service of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia. [73] [171] In response to paid advocacy editing and editing undisclosed issues, Wikipedia Was Reported in year Article by Jeff Elder in The Wall Street Journal on June 16, 2014 to-have Strengthened ict rules and laws contre undisclosed editing. [172] The article stated that: “Beginning Monday [from date of article], changes in the Katherine Maher , The nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation’s chief communications officer; we’re an encyclopedia. ” [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] These issues, Among Others, HAD-been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert is The Colbert Report . [177 ] Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report . [177] Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report . [177]

Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ; [178] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. [179] [180] Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any kind are not only uncommon, but should not be relied upon as authoritative. [181] Wales ounce (2006 or earlier) Said he Receives about ten emails weekly from students Saying they got failing grades are papers Because They Cited Wikipedia; He told the students they got what they deserved. “For God’s sake, you’re in college, do not cite the encyclopedia,” he said. [182]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change. [183] In June 2007, train president of the American Library Association Michael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google , [184] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are “the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything “.

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a “general source” that “can be a real boon” and “while not authoritative, Can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources “. [185]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled “Doctors’ # 1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia”, stated that “Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are Editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information. ” [186] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Dr. Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco Medical School to offer courses to medical students for learning to edit and Improve Wikipedia Articles are health-related issues , as well as internal quality Control programs within Wikipedia organized by Dr. James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia. [186] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled “Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?”, Julie Beck quotes Wikiproject Medicine’s Dr. James Heilman as stating: “Just because a reference is peer- Does not mean it’s a high-quality reference. ” [187] Beck added that: “Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as ‘good’ or ‘featured.’ Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says ‘less than 1 percent’ Of Wikipedia’s medical articles have passed. [187]

Quality of writing

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination. [188] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig , a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its “clear and engaging prose”, which he said was an important aspect of good historical writing. [189] Contrasting Wikipedia ‘ S treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online , he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln’s life, but praised McPherson’s richer contextualization […] his artful use of Quotations to capture Lincoln’s voice […] and […] his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words. ” By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia’s prose that he finds both verbose and dull. Rosenzweig also criticized the “waffling-encouraged by the NPOV policy- [which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history”. By example, he quoted the conclusion of Wikipedia ‘ S article on William Clarke Quantrill . “Some historians […] remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero.” [189]

Other Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented: “Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 per cent correctly, and those facts have been carefully chosen, An illiterate translator at each stage. ” [190] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University . The Quest for the Future of the Physician : Class or “stub” class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that “Wikipedia’s lack of readability may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing”. [191] The Economist argues that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: “inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information”. [192]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, the free encyclopedia, and the free encyclopedia. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have more than anything covered by any printed encyclopedia. [193] The exact degree of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism ). [194] [195] Wikipedia contains materials that may be objectionable, offensive, or pornographic because Wikipedia is not censored . The policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the edition of his Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China , [196] Pakistan , [197]and the United Kingdom , [198] among other countries.

Pie chart of Wikipedia content by subject as of January 2008 [199]

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center in each field: [199]

  • Culture and the arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and physical sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and the applied sciences: 4% (-6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of articles. Through its ” Wikipedia Loves Libraries ” program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles. [200]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota . There was a concentration of females in the People and Arts category, while males focus on Geography and Science. [201]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 is highly uneven. Africa is most underrepresented. [202] Across 30 editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections on the eurocentric and focused on recent events. [203]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 Noted That women porn stars are better covered than women writers have had further Top example. [204]

Systemic bias

When multiple editors contribute to a topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales noted that the unresponsiveness of the population is a reflection of the demographics, which predominantly consists of young males with high education levels in the developed world (cf. previously). [49] The October 22, 2013 essay by Tom Simonite in MIT’s Technology Review titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors . [50]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions. [205] It may be more specifically the biases of Internet culture , inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases of its own may include culture, technology, and current events. [205]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford , in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia by editing conflicts and their resolution. [206] [207] His research examined the counterproductive work behaviorof edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or “undo” operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and rely on the statistical measurement of detecting “reverting / reverted pairs” or “mutually reverting edit pairs”. Such a “mutually reverting edit pair” is defined in the “mutually reverting edit pairs”. The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. George W. Bush , Anarchism and Muhammad . [207] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering (i) Croatia , (ii) Scientology and (iii) 9/11 conspiracy theories . [207] [207] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering (i) Croatia , (ii) Scientology and (iii) 9/11 conspiracy theories . [207] [207] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering (i) Croatia , (ii) Scientology and (iii) 9/11 conspiracy theories . [207]

Researchers from the Washington University . The authors focused on the behavioral changes of the encyclopedia’s administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact. [208 ]

Identifying the filter-bubble problem

Dimitra Kessenides, writing for Bloomberg News Weekly, identified the ‘ filter-bubble ‘ as a recurrent and long-standing issue at Wikipedia. [210] As Kessenides states: “If the only way to get an article about the developing world on Wikipedia was to know how to form a board member, it was hard to imagine how a random editor in Johannesburg or Bangalore would have any hope .. . This so-called filter-bubble problem, coined by Eli Pariser , co-founder of the viral video website upworthy , is the idea que la internet can contribuer to the insularity of some communities. Filter bubbles-have-been blamed for the spread of misinformation In the UK to anticipate Brexit …

Explicit content

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of graphic content. Articles depicting arguably objectionable content (such as Feces , Cadaver , Human penis , Vulva , and Nudity ).

The site also includes sexual content and videos of masturbation and ejaculation , photographs of nude children , illustrations of zoophilia , and photos of hardcore pornographic films in its articles.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer – a 1976 album from German Heavy metal band Scorpions -features a picture of the album’s original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album was potentially illegal indecent “Blacklist” it supplies to British internet service providers. [212] That the IWF, a non-government-affiliated organization, had so much control was described as “alarming.” [213]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his findings on two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons, which contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law . [214] [215] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon , were said to have constituted “obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children” under the PROTECT Act Of 2003 . [216] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law . [216] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools. [217] Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger’s accusation, [218] saying that Wikipedia did not have “material we would deem to be illegal. [218]Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteered to maintain the site to argue that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was ”

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a “private citizen” rather than a ” public figure ” in the eyes of the law. [221] [notes 9] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life (” meatspace “). A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against his or her wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic , aka “Tron”, a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the short rejecting the notion that it was right to privacy or that of its parents was being violated. [222]

Wikipedia has a ” Volunteer Response Team ” that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project. [223]

sexism

Wikipedia has-been harboring Described as a battleground of cultural sexism and harassment . [224] [225] The perceptible attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language are also published in Wikipedia editors. [226] In 2014, a female editor who requested a separate space on the Wikipedia to discuss improving the civilization of the country by a male editor using the words “the easiest way to avoid being called a cunt is not to act like one.” [227]

Surgery

A group of Wikipedia editors may form a WikiProject to focus their work on a specific topic area, using its associated discussion page to coordinate changes across multiple articles. [228]

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Katherine Maher is the third executive director at Wikimedia, following the departure of Lila Tretikov in 2016.

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization qui aussi Operates Wikipedia-related projects Such As Wiktionary and Wikibooks . The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission. [229] The foundation’s 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenues of $ 39.7 million and expenses of almost $ 29 million, with assets of $ 37.2 million and liabilities of about $ 2.3 million. [230]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner. [231] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov’s information technology background from her years at University of California offers “Information, like air , Wants to be free. ” [232] [233] The same Wall Street Journalarticle by Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who said Tretikov would address this issue ( paid advocacy ) as a priority. We are really pushing towards more transparency … We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome. Walsh said. ” [232] In this paper, we present the results of the study,

Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016. [234] Maher has stated that one Of endemic to the Wikipedia by Wikipedia Board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: “It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority …” [235]

Wikipedia est supported by Many organisms and groups That are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation purpose indépendamment-run, called Expired Wikimedia movement affiliates . These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimedia France), thematic organizations (such as Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki , a custom-made, free and open source wiki software platform written in PHP and built on the MySQL database system. [236] The software incorporates programming features as a macro language , variables , a transclusion system for templates , and URL redirection . MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for hyperlinks; The present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia started running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; This software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske . The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker . The present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia started running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; This software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske . The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker . The present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia started running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; This software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker . The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker . The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker .

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed [237] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension [238] [239] was added to MediaWiki’s built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2.1, [240] [ needs update ] which is written in Java and based on Lucene library 2.3. [241]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG extension, VisualEditor , was opened to public use. [242] [243] [244] [245] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as “slow and buggy”. [246]The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Computer programs called Expired bot -have-been Widely used to perform a simple and repetitive tasks, Such As correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start Articles Such As geography entries in a standard format from statistical data. [247] [248] [249] One controversial contributor massively creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to ten thousand articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days. [250]There are also some bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parenthesis). [251] Edits misidentified by a bot can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal to detect and revert vandalism quickly and automatically. [ 242 ] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved prior to activation. [ 242 ] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved prior to activation. [253]

According to Andrew Lih , the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots. [254]

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This section is transcluded from Wikipedia . ( Edit | history )
Main article: WikiProject

A ” WikiProject ” is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. These groups often focus on a specific topic area (for example, women’s history ), a specific location or a specific kind of task (for example, checking newly created pages). The English Wikipedia currently has over 2,000 WikiProjects and activity varies. [255]

In English, French, Spanish, Spanish, Portuguese, Spanish. [256] Articles are rated by WikiProjects. The series of quality classes begins with “Stub”, followed by “Start”, “C” and “B” (in increasing order of quality). Community peer review is required for the highest quality classes: either ” good article “, “A” or the highest, ” featured article “. Of the about 4.4 million items and lists assessed as of March 2015, a little more than 5,000 (0.12%) are featured articles, and fewer than 2,000 (0.04%) are featured lists. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, Appears on the Wikipedia page . [257] [258]

The articles can also be rated as “importance” as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are 5 importance categories: “low”, “mid”, “high”, “top”, and “???” For unclassified / uncertain level. For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels.

The Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team has shown to have a table (shown below) that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance, on the English Wikipedia. WikiProjects, the most widely used and most widely used charts in the world . The software regularly auto-updates the data.

Researcher Giacomo Poderi founded articles in the work of a few editors. [259] A 2010 study found in the quality of articles. [260]

All rated articles by quality and importance
Quality Importance
top High Mid low ??? Total
 FA 1,209 1,855 1,752 1,113 190 6,119
 FL 143 579 675 591 120 2,108
 AT 226 436 585 372 80 1,699
 GA 2,142 4,908 9,557 10.486 1,728 28.821
B 12.249 23.229 35.603 28,965 13.875 113.921
C 10.571 30.822 68.895 96.435 44.027 250.750
Start 17,390 77.428 311.644 817.238 298.044 1521744
stub 4,239 31.006 230.097 1910771 843.812 3019925
list 3,095 11,550 35.357 96.717 61.737 208.456
Assessed 51.264 181.813 694.165 2962688 1263613 5153543
Unassessed 116 437 1,833 16,558 537.194 556.138
Total 51.380 182.250 695.998 2979246 1800807 5709681

Hardware operations and support

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000 page requests per second, depending on time of day. [262] As of 2008 page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching servers. [263] [ needs update ]Wikipedia access trace, are available. [264] Apache web servers for web server servers running Linux Virtual Server software. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further,

Currently Wikipedia runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers (Mainly Ubuntu ). [265] [266] As of December 2009 , there were 300 in Florida and 44 in Amsterdam . [267] By January 22, 2013, Wikipedia has an Equinixfacility in Ashburn, Virginia . [268] [269]

Internal research and operational development

In according with growing water equivalent of incoming donations conduire seven digits in 2013 have recently Reported, [50] the Foundation HAS atteint a threshold of assets qui Qualify icts consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate indication the need for the re-investment of donations Into the internal research and development of the Foundation. [270] Two of the recent projects of such internal research and development have been the creation of a Visual Editor and a broadly under-utilized “Thank you” tab which were developed for the purpose of ameliorating issues of editor attrition, success. [50] [246]The Estimates for reinvestment by industrial organisms into internal research and development Was Studied by Adam Jaffe, Who Recorded que la ranks of 4% to 25% Annually Was to be recommended, with high end technology Requiring the Higher Level of Support for internal reinvestment. [271] At the 2013 level of contributions for Wikimedia presently documented as $ 45 million, the computed budget level recommended by Jaffe and Caballero is between 1.8 million and 11.3 million dollars annually. [271] In 2016, the level of contributions was reported by Blomberg News as being at $ 77 million annually, updating the Jaffe estimates for the highest level of support between 3.08 million and 19. 2 million dollars annually. [271]

Internal news publications

Community-produced news publications include the Wikipedia’s The Signpost , founded in 2005 by Michael Snow, an attorney, Wikipedia administrator and form chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees. [272] It covers news and events from the site, as well as major events from other Wikimedia projects , Such As Wikimedia Commons . Similar publications are the German-language Kurier , and the Portuguese-language Correio da Wikipedia . Other Wikipedia include the “Wikiworld” web comic, the Wikipedia Weekly podcast, And newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors . There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and this Month in Education .

Access to content

Content licensing

When the project was started in 2001, all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), a copyleft license for the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work. [273] The GFDL was created for software manuals that come with free software programs licensed under the GPL . The GFDL requires the use of the GFDL. In December 2002, the Creative Commons license was released: it was specifically designed for creative works in general, not just for software manuals. The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web. The Creative Commons. [274] Because the two licenses, GFDL and Creative Commons, were incompatible, in November 2008, following the request of the project, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of the GFDL designed to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content To CC BY-SA by August 1, 2009. In April 2009, Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June 2009. [275] [276] [277] [278] The Creative Commons. [274] Because the two licenses, GFDL and Creative Commons, were incompatible, in November 2008, following the request of the project, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of the GFDL designed to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content To CC BY-SA by August 1, 2009. In April 2009, Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June 2009. [275] [276] [277] [278] The Creative Commons. [274] Because the two licenses, GFDL and Creative Commons, were incompatible, in November 2008, following the request of the project, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) released a new version of the GFDL designed to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content To CC BY-SA by August 1, 2009. In April 2009, Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June 2009. [275] [276] [277] [278]

The handling of media files (eg image files) varies across language editions. Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, in part because of the lack of fair use of their doctrines in their home countries (eg in Japanese copyright law ) . Media files are covered by free content licenses (eg Creative Commons ‘ CC BY-SA) are shared across language editions via Wikimedia Commons repository, a project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikipedia’s accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.

The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors (and licensors) of the Wikipedia. This position has been successfully defended in short. [280] [281]

Methods of access

Because Wikipedia is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge. The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, from the Wikipedia website.

  • Websites – Thousands of ” mirror sites ” exist that republish content from Wikipedia: two prominent ones, which also include content from other reference sources, are Reference.com and Answers.com . Another example is Wapedia , which began to display Wikipedia.
  • Mobile apps – A variety of mobile apps provide access to Wikipedia on hand-held devices , including both Android and iOS devices (see Wikipedia apps ). (See also Mobile access .)
  • Search engines – Some web search engines make special use of Wikipedia content when displaying search results: examples include Bing (via technology gained from Powerset ) [282] and DuckDuckGo .
  • Compact discs, DVDs – Collections of Wikipedia articles have been published on optical discs . An English version, 2006 Wikipedia CD Selection , contained about 2,000 articles. [283] [284] The Polish-language version contains nearly 240,000 articles. [285] There are German- and Spanish-language versions as well. [286] [287] Also, “Wikipedia for Schools”, the Wikipedia series of CDs / DVDs produced by Wikipedia and SOS Children , is a free, hand-checked, non-commercial selection from the UK National Curriculum and intended To be useful for much of the English-speaking world. [288] The project is available online; An equivalent print encyclopedia would require roughly 20 volumes.
  • Printed books – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [289] [290] Since 2009, tens of Thousands of print-on-demand books That Reproduced English, German, Russian and French Wikipedia products-have-been produced by the American company Books LLC and by three Mauritian filiales of the German publisher VDM . [291]
  • Semantic Web – The DBpedia website , begun in 2007, extracts data from the infoboxes and category declarations of the English-language Wikipedia. Wikimedia HAS created the Wikidata project with a similar objective of Storing the basic facts from Each page of Wikipedia and the other WMF wikis and make it available in a queriable semantic format, RDF . This is still under development. As of Feb 2014 it has 15,000,000 items and 1,000 properties for describing them.

Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged. [292] Wikipedia publishes “dumps” of its contents, but these are text-only; As of 2007 there was no dump available of Wikipedia’s images. [293]

Several languages of Wikipedia aussi Maintain a reference desk , Where volontaires answer question from the public general. According To a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation , the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk , with an accuracy of 55%. [294]

Mobile access

Wikipedia’s original medium Was for users to read and edit Any happy using standard web browser through a fixed internet connection . ALTHOUGH Wikipedia happy has-been accessed through the mobile web since July 2013, The New York Times on February 9, 2014, quoted Erik Möller, deputy director of the Wikimedia Foundation, Stating que la transition of Internet traffic from desktops to mobile devices Was significant and A cause for concern and worry. [16] The article in The New York Times reported the comparison for mobile edits stating that, “Only 20 percent of the readership of the English-language Wikipedia comes via mobile devices, A figure below the percentage of mobile traffic for other media sites, many of which approach 50 percent. And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more. ” [16] The New York Times reports that Möller has assigned” a team of 10 software developers focused on mobile “, out of a total of approximately 200 employees working at the Wikimedia Foundation. [16] One principal concern is the New York Timesfor the “worry” is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment. One main concern is the New York Times for the “worry” is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment. [16] One main concern is the New York Times for the “worry” is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment. [16]

Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July 2014 that Google’s Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for 2013 with 78.6% of market share over their next competitor in iOS with 15.2% of the market. [295] At the time of the Tretikov appointment web interview with Sue Gardner in May 2014, Wikimedia representatives made a technical announcement concerning the number of mobile access systems in the market seeking access to Wikipedia. The BlackBerry and the Windows Phone System, the BlackBerry and the Windows Phone System, are designed to provide users with an easy-to- Making market share a secondary issue. [233] The latest version of the Android app for Wikipedia was released on July 23, 2014, to the positive reviews, scoring over four hundred million users downloading from Google. [296] The latest version for iOS was released on April 3, 2013, to similar reviews. [297]

Access to Wikipedia from mobile phones may Was as early as 2004 through the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), via the Wapedia service. In June 2007 Wikipedia launched en.mobile.wikipedia.org , an official website for wireless devices. In 2009 a newer mobile service was officially released, [298] located at en.m.wikipedia.org , which caters to more advanced mobile devices such as iPhone , Android -based devices or WebOS -based devices. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, Incorporate while aussi Some additional features Such As use of Wikipedia metadata (See Wikipedia: Metadata ), Such As geoinformation . [299] [300]

Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries. [301]

Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown Both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors. Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of the MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this. Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo . [50] Lih alleges there is serious disagreement among existing contributors how to resolve this. Lih fears for Wikipedia ‘ S long term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace it. [302] [303]

Cultural impact

Readership

Wikipedia is extremely popular. In February 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating “With 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month […] Wikipedia trails just Yahoo, Facebook, Microsoft and Google, The largest with 1.2 trillion unique visitors. ” [16]

In addition to logistic growth in the number of items ict, [304] Wikipedia HAS Steadily Gained status as a general reference website since icts inception in 2001. [305] About 50% of search engine traffic to Wikipedia comes from Google, [306] A good part of which is related to academic research. [307] The number of readers of Wikipedia worldwide reached 365 million at the end of 2009. [308] The Pew Internet and American Life project found that one third of US Internet users consulted Wikipedia. [309] In 2011 Business Insider gave Wikipedia a valuation of $ 4 billion if it ran advertisements. [310]

According to “Wikipedia Readership Survey 2011”, the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders. Almost half of Wikipedia reads the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically for Wikipedia in search engine results. About 47% of Wikipedia is a non-profit organization. [311]

Cultural significance

Main article: Wikipedia in culture
Wikipedia Monument in Słubice , Poland

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search [312] [313] [314] The Parliament of Canada ‘s website Refers to Wikipedia’s section is same-sex marriage in the “related links” section of its “further Top reading” list for the Civil Marriage Act . [315] The encyclopedia’s assertions are increasingly used as a source of information by organizations such as the US Federal Court and the World Intellectual Property Organization [316] – but mainly for supporting information rather than information decisive to a case. [317] Content appearing on Wikipedia has some source and referenced in some US intelligence agency reports. [318] In December 2008, the scientific journal RNA Biologylaunched a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to also submit a draft article on the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia. [319] The scientific journal RNA Biology, a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia. [319] The scientific journal RNA Biology, a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to the RNA family for publication in Wikipedia. [319]

Wikipedia HAS aussi beens used as a source in journalism, [320] [321] Often without attribution, and several reporters-have-been Dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia. [322] [323] [324]

In 2006, Time magazine, Wikipedia’s participation (along with YouTube , Reddit , MySpace , and Facebook [325] ) in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide.

In July 2007 Wikipedia was the focus of a 30-minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [326] which argued that, with increased use and awareness, the number of references to Of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar ( Google , Facebook, YouTube) that they no longer need explanation.

On September 28, 2007, Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama . Wikipedia, “the seventh most consulted website”, to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues. [327]

On September 16, 2007, The Washington Post reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the 2008 US election campaign , saying: “Type a candidate’s name in Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important As a member of the Board of Directors of the Board of Directors. [328] An October 2007 Reuters article, titled “Wikipedia page the latest status symbol”, reported the recent phenomenon of how having a Wikipedia article vindicates one’s notability. [329]

Active participation also has an impact. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience. [330]

A working group led by Peter Stone (formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence ) in its report called Wikipedia “the best-known example of crowdsourcing … that far exceeds traditionally-compiled information sources , Such as encyclopedias and dictionaries, in scale and depth. ” [331]

Awards

Wikipedia team visiting to Parliament of Asturias
Wikipedians meeting after the Asturias awards ceremony

Wikipedia won two major awards in May 2004. [332] The first was a Golden Nica for Digital Communities of the annual Prix ​​Ars Electronica contest; This cam with a € 10,000 (£ 6,588; $ 12,700) grant and an invitation to present at the PAE Cyberarts Festival in Austria later that year. The second was a Judges’ Webby Award for the “community” category. [333] Wikipedia was also nominated for a “Best Practices” Webby award.

In 2007, readers of brandchannel.com voted Wikipedia as the fourth highest ranking ranking, receiving 15% of the votes in answer to the question “Which brand had the most impact on our lives in 2006?” [334]

In September 2008, Wikipedia received a Quadriga A Mission of Enlightenment awarded to Werkstatt Deutschland along with Boris Tadić , Eckart Höfling , and Peter Gabriel . The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger . [335]

In 2015, Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences, [336] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation. [337] Speaking at the Asturian Parliament in Oviedo, the city that hosts the ceremony awards, Jimmy Wales praised the work of the Asturian language Wikipedia users. [338] The night of the ceremony, members of the Wikimedia Foundation held a meeting with Wikipedians from all parts of Spain, including the local Asturian community .

Satire

See also: Category: Parodies of Wikipedia .

Many parodies target Wikipedia’s openness and susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project’s articles.

Comedian Stephen Colbert has the parodied or referenced Wikipedia on its episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning “together we can create a reality that we agree on the reality we just agreed on”. [177] Another example can be found in “Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence”, a July 2006 front-page article in The Onion , [339] as well as 2010 The Onion article ‘LA Law’ Wikipedia Page Viewed 874 Times Today “. [340]

In an episode of the television comedy The Office US , which aired in April 2007, an incompetent office manager ( Michael Scott ) is shown relying on a hypothetical Wikipedia article for information on negotiation tactics in order to assist him in negotiating lesser pay for an employee . [341] The tactics he used failed, as a joke about the unreliability of Wikipedia and what anyone can do to change its contents. Wikipedia article on bargaining, but this effort was prevented by other users on the article’s talk page. [342]

” My Number One Doctor “, has 2007 episode of the television show Scrubs , played on the perception That Wikipedia is an unreliable reference tool with a szene in qui Dr. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says That a Wikipedia Article indicates que la raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting que le même editor Who wrote That section aussi wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide . [343]

In 2008, the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named “Professor Wikipedia”, in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements. [344]

The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, 2009, features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying “Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia.” [345]

In July 2009, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia , which was a parody of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. [346]

In 2010, comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0 , to visit the show’s Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On the other side of the story, we have been able to make the most of the offensive. [347] [348]

On August 23, 2013, the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: “Dammit, Manning, have you considered the pronoun war that this is going to start on your Wikipedia page?” [349]

In December 2015, John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that it has an historian he resorted to Wikipedia “at least a dozen times a day”, and had never caught it out. He described it as “a work of reference as useful as any in existence”, with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered Two books without it. [350] [351]

Sister projects – Wikimedia

Main article: Wikimedia project

Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation . These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project lancé in December 2002 [352]Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after-Wikimedia lancé, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a website Devoted To free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities. [353] Another sister project of Wikipedia, Wikispecies is a catalog of species. In 2012 Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched.

Publishing

A group of Wikimedians of the Wikimedia DC chapter at the 2013 DC Wikimedia annual meeting standing in front of the Encyclopædia Britannica (back left) at the US National Archives

The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, eg Encyclopædia Britannica , which were unable to compete with a product that is essentially free. [354] [355] [356] Nicholas Carr wrote a 2005 essay, “The amorality of Web 2.0 “, which criticized websites with user-generated content , like Wikipedia, Content producers’ going out of business, because “free trumps quality all the time”. Carr wrote: “Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2.0 is the hegemony of the amateur. I can not imagine anything more frightening.” [357] Others dispute the notion that Wikipedia, or similar efforts, will all displace traditional publications. For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the ” wisdom of crowds ” approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process. [358]

There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. “The worry is that, if you can get all that information from Wikipedia, what’s left for biography?” Said Kathryn Hughes , professor of life writing at UEA and author of The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs. Beeton and George Eliot: the Last Victorian[359]

Scientific use

Wikipedia Has Seen beens Widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing . In Particular, it Commonly reserves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, qui est Then called “wikification” [360] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation . [361] Methods similar to “Wikipedia”. [362]

In 2015, French researchers Dr José Lages of the University of Franche-Comté in Besançon and Dima Shepelyansky of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse published a global university ranking based on Wikipedia scholarly citations. [363] [364] [365] They used PageRank “followed by the number of appearances in the 24 different language editions of Wikipedia (descending order) and the century in which they were founded (ascending order). [365]

Related projects

A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded. The first of these was the 1986 BBC Domesday Project , which included text (entered on BBC Micro computers) and photographs from over 1 million contributors in the UK, and covered the geography, art, and culture of the UK. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia (and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links), with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK. The user interface and part of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until 2008. [366]

Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period Wikipedia (eg Everything2 ), [367] with many later being merged into the project (eg GNE ). [368] One of the most successful early online encyclopedias incorporating entries by the public was h2g2 , which was created by Douglas Adams in 1999. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative.

Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning.nu , Free Enciclopedia , Hudong , and Baidu Baike likewise employ no formal review process, although some like Conservapedia are not as open. Others use more traditional peer review , such as the Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium . The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. [369] [370]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *