The Chinese Wikipedia ( traditional Chinese : 中文維基百科 ; simplified Chinese : 中文维基百科 ; pinyin : Zhōngwén weiji Bǎikē ) is the (Standard) Chinese languageedition of Wikipedia . It is run by the Wikimedia Foundation . Started on 11 May 2001, [1] the Chinese Wikipedia currently has about 952,000 articles and about 2,395,000 registered users, of which 82 have administrative privileges.

The Chinese Wikipedia is the fourth Largest online Chinese encyclopedia after- Hudong Baike (互动百科), Baidu Baike (百度百科) and Soso Baike (搜搜百科). Citation needed ]

History

The Chinese Wikipedia was established along with 12 other Wikipedias in May 2001. At the beginning, however, the Chinese Wikipedia did not support Chinese characters, and had no encyclopedic content.

In October 2002, the first Chinese-language page was written, the Main Page . A software update on October 27, 2002 allowed Chinese language input. The domain was set to be zh.wikipedia.org , with zh based on the ISO code for the Chinese language. On 17 November 2002, the user Mountain translated the Computer science article into zh: 科学 科学 , thus creating its first real encyclopedic article.

In order to accommodate the orthographic differences between simplified Chinese characters and Chinese characters (or Orthodox Chinese), from 2002 to 2003, the Chinese Wikipedia community gradually decided to combine the two original versions of the Chinese Wikipedia. The first running automatic conversion between the two orthographic representations started on 23 December 2004, with the MediaWiki 1.4 release. The needs of Hong Kong and Singapore were taken into account in the MediaWiki 1.4.2 release, which made the conversion table for zh-sg default to zh-cn, and zh-hk default to zh-tw. [2]

In its early days, most articles on the Chinese Wikipedia were translated from the English version. The first five sysops, or administrators , were promoted on 14 June 2003.

Wikipedia Was Introduced first by the mainland Chinese media citation needed ] in the newspaper China Computer Education (中国电脑教育报) on October 20, 2003 in the article, “I join to write an encyclopedia” (我也来写百科全书). [3] On May 16, 2004, Wikipedia was first reported by Taiwanese in the newspaper China Times . Since then, many newspapers have published articles about the Chinese Wikipedia , and many have been interviewed by journalists.

Ivan Zhai of the South China, who wrote a book about the growth of the Chinese Wikipedia. Wikipedia grow. In 2013, there were 1.4 million registered users on the Chinese Wikipedia, and in July 2013 7,500 of these users were active, with most of them originating from Hong Kong and Taiwan. 715,000 entries for the Chinese Wikipedia, making it the 12th largest Wikipedia. [4]

Naming

The Chinese name of Wikipedia was decided on 21 October 2003, following a vote. The name ( simplified Chinese : 百科 百科 ; traditional Chinese : 百科 百科 ; pinyin : Wéijī Bǎikē ) means “Wiki Encyclopedia”. The Chinese transcription of “Wiki” is composed of two characters: 維 / 维, 維, And 基, meaning ‘foundations of a building’, or ‘fundamental aspects of things in general’. The name can be interpreted as ‘the encyclopedia that connects the fundamental knowledge of humanity’.

Reviews The most common Chinese translation for wiki technology is維基/维基; HOWEVER, it can be維客/维客(literally “dimension visitor” or similar) or圍紀/围纪(literally “circle / enclosed period / record” or similar), qui sont également transcripts of the word “wiki”. As a result, the term維基/维基HAS Become Exclusively associated with Wikimedia projects. [5]

The Chinese Wikipedia aussi: has a subtitle:海納百川,有容乃大/海纳百川,有容乃大. It means clustering, “The sea encompasses a hundred rivers; It has capacity ie is willing to accept all and THUS is great.” The subtitle is the first half of a verse composed by the Qing Dynasty official Lin Zexu .

In April 2016, the project had 2127 active editors who made at least five edits in that month.

Chinese Wikipedia contributors come from a variety of backgrounds. Just as English Wikipedia tend to be more detailed in western related article topics, the Chinese Wikipedia HAS very detailed descriptions of China -related article topics. Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the wealthy east coast provinces of mainland China. Citation needed ]

Also due to the geographical origin of its participants, the most discussed and debated topics on the Chinese Wikipedia are political issues about Chinese modern period history. For example, the six most edited articles as of August 2007 were Taiwan , Chinese culture , China , Mao Zedong , Chiang Kai-shek , and Hong Kong , in that order. In contrast, the Israel-Palestinian conflict is much less contentious. Citation needed ]

Due to the audience base, Wikipedians from Mainland, Taiwan, and other areas Cross-Straits relations . [6]

Administrators

As of August 2014, there are 83 administrators, or sysops. They are all elected by Chinese Wikipedians. Most of them come from Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. There are also a few who come from the United States, Singapore, and Japan. Administrators from Mainland China Even if it is a reliable source of controversial information. Most of them controlled by organizations opposed to democracy in China.

Meetings

The first Chinese Wikipedian meeting was held in Beijing on July 25, 2004. Since then, Chinese Wikipedians from different regions have held many gatherings in Beijing , Shanghai , Dalian , Shenyang , Guangdong , Hong Kong , and Taiwan . Currently, a regular meetup is held every two weeks in Shanghai , Taipei and Hong Kong , and once every month in Tainan City , Taiwan . In July 2006, Taiwanese Wikipedians also held a “traveling meetup”, traveling by train through four Taiwanese cities over a period of two days. In August 2006,

Chinese Wikipedians advertise Wikipedia in different ways. Many of them use weibo , a Chinese socializing website similar to Twitter. Several Chinese Wikipedians created the Wikipedia monthly magazine, or newspaper, called ” The Wikipedians ” in December 2012, which is currently published once a month.

Systemic bias

In order to avoid systemic bias , the editors are advised to avoid writing in any country or region; to Avoid using terms Such As我国/我國( “our country”, referring to the People’s Republic of China or the Republic of China , DEPENDING ON ‘viewpoint)本港( “this port”, referring to Hong Kong), gold本澳( “This Macau”, referring to Macau); INSTEAD and, to Refer to rentals in the Chinese-speaking sphere golden periods in Chinese history by Explicitly Stating China (eg ” Yunnan Province, China”, INSTEAD of just ” Yunnan Province”).

Automatic translation between traditional and simplified Chinese characters

Original situation

Originally, there were virtually two Chinese Wikipedias under the names of “zh” (or “zh-cn”) and “zh-tw”. Generally, users from regions That Used Traditional Chinese characters (Such as Taiwan , Hong Kong , and Macau) wrote and edited items using Traditional Chinese characters whereas Those from areas That Used Simplified Chinese characters (Such As mainland China , Singapore , and Malaysia ) wrote Using Simplified Chinese characters. Many articles had two uncoordinated versions; For example, There was both a Traditional ( 法國 ) and Simplified ( 法国 ) article on France . (Especially nouns) and writing systems, between mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, which have developed through their relative lack of communications during much of the 20th century citation needed ] . For example, a computer printer is called 打印机 in mainland China, but 機 機 in Taiwan. And Singapore that have developed their relative lack of communications during much of the 20th century citation needed ] . For example, a computer printer is called 打印机 in mainland China, but 機 機 in Taiwan. And Singapore that have developed their relative lack of communications during much of the 20th century citation needed ] . For example, a computer printer is called 打印机 in mainland China, but 機 機 in Taiwan.

Solution

To avoid this near- forking of the project, starting around January 2005, the Chinese Wikipedia Began providing good a server -side mechanism to automatically convert different characters and vocabulary items into the user’s local ones, selon the user’s preference settings, qui May be set To one of two settings that convert the script only, or one of five settings that also take into account regional vocabulary differences:

Variant’s name Chinese name iso Effect
Simplified 简体 zh-Hans
Traditional 繁體 zh-Hant
Simplified and using Mainland Chinese terms 大陆 简体 zh-CN
Traditional and using Taiwanese terms 台灣 正 體 zh-TW
Simplified and using Singaporean and Malaysian terms 马 新 简体 zh-SG
Traditional and using Hong Kong terms 香港 繁體 zh-HK
Traditional and using Macau terms 澳門 繁體 zh-MO
NB: the user can also choose to read each article in whichever script it is stored in, without conversion
For more information, see:
Meta: Automatic conversion between simplified and traditional Chinese .

Conversion is done through a set of character conversion tables that may be edited by administrators. To provide an alternative means to harmonize the characters when the server-side converters fail to work properly, a special template was created to manually convert characters and article titles into one specific page.

Furthermore, page title conversion is used for automatic page redirection. Those articles which have been published in different characters or different translations have been merged, and can be obtained by means of both Traditional and Simplified Chinese titles.

Differences with other versions of Wikipedia

According to a survey conducted between April 2010 and March 2011, edicts to the Chinese Wikipedia were 37.8% from Taiwan , 26.2% from Hong Kong , 17.7% from Mainland China , 6.1% from United States and 2.3% from Canada . [7]

Many editing controversies Arise from current and historical political events in Chinese-speaking regions, Such As the political status of Taiwan , North Korea’s nuclear weapons , and the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 . Citation needed ]

  • Speedy deletion works in a similar way to the English Wikipedia , but proposed deletion is unavailable.

Wikipedias in other varieties of Chinese

Wikipedia is a Wikipedia article on the Wikipedia article. Other countries are shown in yellow. [8]
Chinese Wikipedia Page view ratio by country between March, 2012 to February, 2013.

The Chinese Wikipedia is based on written vernacular Chinese , the official Chinese written language in all Chinese-speaking regions, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and Singapore. This register is widely associated with the grammar and vocabulary of Standard Chinese , the official spoken language of mainland China, Taiwan, and Singapore (but not exclusively of Hong Kong and Macau, which widely use Cantonese ).

The varieties of Chinese are a diverse group encompassing many regional varieties, most of which are mutually unintelligible and often divided into several larger dialect groups, such as Wu (including Shanghainese and Suzhounese ), Min Nan (of which Taiwanese is a notable dialect) , And Cantonese . Mandarin dialects, the Vernacular Chinese standard widely corresponding to Standard Chinese is not used exclusively as the Chinese written standard; This written standard differs sharply from the local dialects in vocabulary and grammar , And is often read in local pronunciation but preserving the vocabulary and grammar of Standard Chinese . After the foundation of Wikipedia, many users of non-Mandarin Chinese varieties began to ask for the right to have Wikipedia editions in non-Mandarin varieties as well. However, they also have significant opposition, based on the fact that Mandarin-based Vernacular Chinese is the only form used in scholarly or academic contexts. Some aussi Proposed the implementation of an automatic conversion program similar to entre That Simplified and Traditional Chinese; However, others pointed out that while converting between Simplified and Traditional Chinese mainly glyph and sometimes vocabulary substitutions,

Notwithstanding, it has been determined that the varieties were sufficiently different from Standard Chinese and had a sufficiently large number of followers to justify the creation of six Wikipedias for different varieties.

Edition name WP code Variety Writing system
Minnan Wikipedia zh-min-nan: Min Nan (Hokkien), and using Taiwanese as its standard. Latin ( Pe̍h-ōe-jī ) and
Traditional
Cantonese Wikipedia zh-yue: Yue Chinese , and using Cantonese (ie the Guangzhou / Hong Kong dialect) as its standard. Traditional and Simplified
Mindong Wikipedia cdo: Mindong , and using Fuzhounese as its standard. Latin ( Bàng-uâ-cê ) and Traditional [9]
Wu Wikipedia wuu: Wu , and using the Shanghainese , Suzhounese , and classical Wu literature as its standards. Simplified
Hakka Wikipedia hak: Hakka , and using the Siyen dialect as its standard. Latin ( Pha̍k-fa-sṳ ) and
Traditional [10]
Gan Wikipedia gan: Gan , and using the Nanchang dialect as its standard. Traditional and Simplified

Finally, a classical Chinese Wikipedia ( zh-classical 🙂 , based on Classical Chinese , an archaic register of Chinese with grammar and vocabulary drawn from classical works , and used in all official contexts until the Early 20th century, when it was displaced by the Vernacular Chinese standard.

All of the above Wikipedias have sidestepped the Traditional / Simplified Chinese issue. The Wu Wikipedia uses The Chinese Wikipedia uses the Chinese Wikipedia as an alternative to the Chinese Wikipedia. The Min Nan Wikipedia uses Pe̍h-ōe-jī . The Mindong Wikipedia and Hakka Wikipedia currently uses Bàng-uâ-cê and Pha̍k-fa-sṳ respectively, which can be converted to Traditional Chinese characters , thus avoiding the issue completely.

Blocking of Wikipedia

Main article: Blocking of Wikipedia in mainland China
See also: The Great Firewall § Efforts at breaking through

The People’s Republic of China and internet service providers in Mainland China have adopted a practice of blocking contentious Internet sites in mainland China , and Wikimedia sites have been blocked at least three times in its history. [11]

On May 19, 2015 Chinese Wikipedia was blocked again within mainland China. [12]

First block

The first block lasted from June 2-June 21, 2004. It was when the Chinese Wikipedia from Beijing was blocked on the 15th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 .

Possibly related to this, on May 31, an article from the IDG News Service was published, [13] discussing the Chinese Wikipedia’s treatment of the protests. The Chinese Wikipedia also has articles related to Taiwan independence , written by contributors from Taiwan and elsewhere. A few days after the initial block of the Chinese Wikipedia, all Wikimedia Foundation sites were blocked in mainland China. In response to the blocks, two moderators prepared an appeal to raise the block and ask their regional internet service provider to submit it. All Wikimedia sites were unblocked between June 17th and June 21st, 2004. One month later, the first Chinese Wikipedian moderators’ meeting was held in Beijing on July 25, 2004.

The first block had an effect on the vitality of the Chinese Wikipedia, which suffered sharp dips in various indicators, such as the number of new users, the number of new articles, and the number of edits. In some cases, it took anywhere from 6 to 12 months in order to regain the stats from May 2004. On the other hand, on today’s site, some of the articles are put under protection which may last for a month or more without any actions .

Second block

The second and less serious outage lasted between September 23 and September 27, 2004. During this 4-day period, access to Wikipedia was erratic or unavailable to some users in mainland affected. The exact reason for the block is a mystery. Chinese Wikipedians once again Prepared a written appeal to regional ISPs, aim the block Was Lifted before the appeal Was Actually feels, for an unknown reason.

Third block and temporary unblocks

The third block began on October 19, 2005, and there was no indication as to whether this block was temporary or permanent, or what the reasons were for this block. According to the status page that is currently maintained on the Chinese Wikipedia, the Florida and Korea servers were blocked, while the Paris and Amsterdam servers were not. Dozens of editors from across mainland China Reported That They Could only access Wikipedia using proxy servers, ALTHOUGH There Were isolated deferrals That Could Some users access Wikipedia without using a proxy. Most Chinese people were not able to connect to the site at all.

During October and November 2006, it was unblocked again. Many conflicting reports came from news outlets, bloggers, and Wikipedians, reporting a possible partial or full unblocking of Wikipedia. Some reports indicated a complete unblock; The Chinese Wikipedia was blocked by other versions. From November 17 onwards, the complete block was once again in place.

On June 15, 2007, China lifted the block for several articles, only to then block an increasing number of articles. On 30 August 2007, all blocks were lifted, but then a block was placed on Wikipedia for all languages ​​on 31 August 2007. [11] As of 26 January 2008, all languages ​​of Wikipedia were blocked, [11] and as of 2 April 2008, the block was lifted. [14]

By April 5, 2008, the Chinese Wikipedia became difficult to access from the Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangzhou . Connections to the Chinese Wikipedia was completely blocked as of April 6, 2008. However, users were able to log on to the Chinese Wikipedia using https. All other languages ​​were accessible, but politically sensitive searches such as Tibet were still blocked.

On 3 July 2008, the government lifted the ban on accessing the Chinese Wikipedia. However, some parts were still inaccessible. On July 31, 2008, BBC reported that the Chinese Wikipedia had been unblocked that day in China; It had still been blocked the previous day. This cam dans le context of foreign journalists arriving in Beijing to report on the upcoming Olympic Games , and websites like the Chinese edition of the BBC Were being white unblocked Following talks entre les International Olympic Committee and the Games’ Chinese organizers. [15]

Self-censorship allegations

In December 2006, the International Herald Tribune Asia Pacific [16] published an item Saying That got sensitive topics subdued treatment on the Chinese Wikipedia.

But on sensitive questions of China’s modern history or on hot-button issues, the Chinese version diverges so dramatically from its English counterpart that they were approved by the censors themselves.

For some, the Chinese version of Wikipedia was intended as just as a resource, but its tame approach to sensitive topics has sparked a fierce debate in the world of online mavens over its objectivity and thoroughness.

On the evidence of entries like this, for the moment, the fight over editorial direction of Wikipedia in Chinese is being won by enthusiasts who practice self-censorship.

On December 1, 2006, The New York Times published another report by Howard W. French, titled “Wikipedia lays bare two versions of China’s past.”

Some say the object should be as widely available as possible, and that in any case, self-censorship is pointless because the government still frequently blocks to Wikipedia for most Chinese Internet users. ‘Isaac Mao, a well-known Chinese blogger and user of the encyclopedia.’ ‘There is a lot of confusion about whether they should obey the neutral point of view or offer some compromises to the government. ‘To the local Wikipedians, the first objective is to make it well known among the Chinese, to get people to understand the principles of Wikipedia step by step, and not to get the thing blocked by the government.

The report was subsequently repeated by CBS [17] and by Chinese-language media outlets such as the Apple Daily in Taiwan.

Some Chinese Wikipedians then tried to clarify the situation. One Chinese Wikipedian feels a comment That Was subsequently published in the Apple Daily in Taiwan. The comment stated:

… to the extent that we can not do it. The motive, goal, and standards of control are very clear: to create an encyclopedia with rich content, good quality, and open copyright. All of our editing and deletion policies stem from this. There is no doubt about this point, and this will not change under any political pressure or personal beliefs.

Looking at the description of Mao Zedong on the Chinese Wikipedia, one can simply go online and see for oneself; In order to understand the operation of Wikipedia or to edit it oneself, just a few more mouse clicks would suffice. As Wikipedia continues to attract awareness, Wikipedia as well. Unfortunately, even a reputable international media source such as the New York Times was unable to find out the actual situation before passing biased judgment on Wikipedia. We can also see here that in quoting media overseas, even a notable one, one must still be cautious and check once again for oneself. ( Translated ) [18]

In Reviews another email Addressed to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing list, a Chinese Wikipedian Stated: citation needed ]

1) Chinese Wikipedia has a high standard of NPOV, and Chinese Wikipedians take this policy seriously.

2) There is no such thing as “self-censorship” at Chinese Wikipedia; Chinese Wikipedia has an article on: Chinese Wikipedia.

3) Chinese Wikipedia is written by people from various places of the world, including Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Asia, America, Europe, etc. Indeed, editors from Mainland China are disproportionally scarce because of the current block obviously imposed by the PRC government (though it never admitted that).

Previous proposals to self-censor the Chinese Wikipedia in light of the PR Chinese government’s censorship policies have been made before, but were overwhelmingly rejected by the community. [19]

In April 2010, Hong Kong newspaper Ming Pao reported the broad-scale censorship of contents about Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 and other Hong Kong related “Shizhao” (“無 一 用 書生 書生” aka “昭”) Was involved. [20] The report also mentioned the failed recall of the administrator. [20]

In a follow-up, Ming Pao interviewed Shizhao and stated that he was not a member of the 50 Cent Party . [21] He added that for controversial topics such as the 1989 protests, he should be a little more cautious. [21] In the interview, he denied that he had attempted to delete an article about the Concert For Democracy in China ( 歌聲 獻 獻 中華 ). [21]

HOWEVER, He Had started a vote to delete an item about a song criticizing the Hong Kong government ( Chinese : 福佳始終有你 ; pinyin : Fú jiā shǐzhōng yǒu nǐ ) in 2007, enraging Many Hong Kong netizens . [21]Shizhao added That, at the time, He Had already edited more than 50,000 times, deleting Several items Including Manual for Librarians . He joked about the incident, Saying, “some May Consider That Is a kind of hate to libraries and hence is not suitable for monitoring Wikipedia.” [21]

Competitors

On April 20, 2006, the Chinese online search engine company Baidu created Baidu Baike , an online encyclopedia That registered users can edit, pending administrator reviews. The content of the encyclopedia is self-censored in accordance with the regulations of the People’s Republic of China . Within weeks, the number of items in Baidu Baike HAD Surpassed That of the Chinese Wikipedia.

As of October, 2009, Hudong Wiki surpassed Baidu Baike as China’s largest online encyclopedia.

Baidu Baike and Hudong are both commercial products. Whereas the Chinese Wikipedia is released under the GNU Free Documentation License , Baidu Baike and Hudong are fully copyrighted by their ownership; Contributors forfeit all rights upon submission. However, Baidu Baike has been accused of “widespread copyright infringement” by mass-copying Wikipedia pages and incorporating them into Baidu Baike pages since 2007 (see Wikipedia: Mirrors and forks / Baidu Baike for details). [22] [23]

See also

  • China portal
  • Hong Kong portal
  • Macau portal
  • Taiwan portal
  • Singapore portal
  • Malaysia portal
  • Blocking of Wikipedia in mainland China
  • Chinese encyclopedias
  • Comprehensive technical information about automatic conversion on the Chinese Wikipedia between Simplified and Traditional Chinese
  • Golden Shield Project
  • How to start a new Wikipedia
  • M: List of Wikipedias
  • List of Wikipedias [24]
  • Politics of the People’s Republic of China
  • Wikipedia: Multilingual statistics
  • Internet censorship in the People’s Republic of China

References

  1. Jump up^ https://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2001-May/000116.html
  2. Jump up^ “Files” . SourceForge.net. 2005-04-20 . Retrieved 2012-05-29 .
  3. Jump up^ “也 来 写 百科全书 百科全书.” (Archive)
  4. Jump up^ Zhai, Ivan. “Wiki reboot: Chinese Wikipedia makes comeback after early censorship.” South China Morning Post . Monday August 5, 2013. Retrieved on March 9, 2014.
  5. Jump up^ “MDBG.net” . MDBG.net . Retrieved 2012-05-29 .
  6. Jump up^ Tsoi, Grace. “Wikipedia China Becomes Front Line for Language and Culture.” The New York Times . October 27, 2013. Retrieved on October 29, 2013.
  7. Jump up^ “Page Edits Per Wikipedia Language” . statswikimedia.
  8. Jump up^ Erik Zachte (14 November 2011). “Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Wikipedia Page Views Per Country – Trends” . Wikimedia Statistics . Retrieved 19 January 2011 .
  9. Jump up^ cdo: 漢 漢語
  10. Jump up^ hak: 百科
  11. ^ Jump up to:c Schwankert, Steven (2007-09-06). “Wikipedia Blocked in China Again” . IDG News via PCworld . Retrieved 2008-01-26 .
  12. Jump up^ 中文 百科 被 屏蔽 屏蔽,NetEase, Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  13. Jump up^ “PCworld.com” . PCworld.com. 1989-06-04 . Retrieved 2012-05-29 .
  14. Jump up^ Barak, Sylvie (2008-04-03). “China uncensors Wikipedia” . The Inquirer . Retrieved 2008-04-03 .
  15. Jump up^ “Beijing unblocks BBC Chinese site”, BBC, July 31, 2008.
  16. Jump up^ “Chinese-language Wikipedia presents different view of history”by Howard W. French,The New York Times, Published: November 29, 2006.
  17. Jump up^ “Is Wikipedia China Really Wikipedia?” Posted by Brian Montopoli at 11:45 AM, November 30, 2006
  18. Jump up^ 都 誤解 了 維基 百科 百科 (in Chinese)
  19. Jump up^ 关于维基百科中国大陆本土化的建议(on the Chinese Wikipedia)
  20. ^ Jump up to:b 用戶Ming Pao (in Chinese). Hong Kong . 2010-04-23 . Retrieved 2013-05-15 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:e 罷免 維基 管理員: 非 編輯Ming Pao (in Chinese). Hong Kong . 2010-04-25 . Retrieved 2013-05-15 .
  22. Jump up^ Nystedt, Dan (2007-08-06). “Baidu May Be Worst Wikipedia Copyright Violator” .
  23. Jump up^ Chao, Loretta (2011-03-29). “Baidu Takes Authors’ Fire” . The Wall Street Journal .
  24. Jump up^ List of Wikipedia- Wikisource by S23

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